General Packet Radio Service GPRS

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General Parcel Radio Administration (GPRS). Petteri Lappalainen 23.11.1998 IP Tech School Class Presentation In view of the material by Tuomas Niemel

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General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Petteri Lappalainen 23.11.1998 IP Tech School Seminar Presentation Based on the material by Tuomas Niemelä (- 97), Hannu H. Kari (- 98) and ETSI

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Wireless guide

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1. Prologue to GPRS What is GPRS ? GPRS qualities Applications 2. GPRS engineering Network components 3. GPRS Operations Radio interface asset reservation Security operations Connecting to GPRS Data exchange Mobility administration Interworking with GSM administrations 4. Extraordinary issues SMS Charging O&M Supplementary administrations QoS Performance 5. GPRS business see What must be contributed… How to profit with GPRS Users' advantages of GPRS Business display 6. GPRS particulars Contents

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1. Prologue to GPRS 1.1. What is GPRS ? 1.2. GPRS get to interfaces and reference focuses 1.3. How is GPRS seen by outside systems and GPRS clients 1.4. Air interface assets 1.5. GPRS qualities 1.6. Applications

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1.1. What is GPRS ? Some portion of GSM stage 2+ General Packet Radio Service General - > not limited to GSM utilize (DECT ?, third era frameworks ?) Packet Radio - > empowers parcel mode correspondence over air Service, not System - > existing BSS (in part additionally NSS) foundation is utilized Requires numerous new system components into NSS Provides associations with outside bundle information systems (Internet, X.25) Main advantages Resources are held just when required and charged in like manner Connection setup times are diminished Enables new administration openings

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1.2. GPRS get to interfaces and reference focuses GPRS gives bundle changed associations from MS to parcel information systems (PDN) Different administrator's GPRS systems are associated through Gp interface

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1.3. How is GPRS seen by outer systems and GPRS clients?

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1.4. Air interface assets A case of involved TCH limit by CS activity amid occupied hour with n% blocking Free Capacity GPRS "steals" any TCH limit not utilized by CS movement Capacity possessed by CS activity

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1.5. GPRS attributes GPRS utilizes parcel exchanged asset assignment assets allotted just when information is to be sent/gotten Flexible channel portion one to eight schedule vacancies accessible assets shared by dynamic clients here and there connection channels held independently GPRS and circuit exchanged GSM administrations can utilize same availabilities on the other hand Traffic qualities reasonable for GPRS Intermittent, bursty information transmissions Frequent transmissions of little volumes of information Infrequent transmission of bigger volumes of information

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1.6. Applications Standard information arrange convention based IP based applications WWW, FTP, Telnet, ... Any customary TCP/IP based applications X.25 based applications Packet Assembly/Disassembly (PAD) sort approach GPRS particular convention based Point-to-point applications Toll street framework, UIC prepare control framework Point-to-multipoint applications Weather data, street activity information, news, armada administration SMS conveyance (GPRS as a conveyor for SMS)

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2. GPRS design 2.1. Interfaces, reference focuses and organize components 2.2. Useful view on GPRS 2.3. Membership of GPRS administration 2.4. New system components 2.4.1. GGSN 2.4.2. SGSN 2.4.3. Different components 2.4.4. GPRS spines 2.5. GPRS Mobile classes 2.6. MS multislot abilities

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2.1. Interfaces, reference focuses and organize components

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2.2. Practical view on GPRS

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Assignment of capacities to general sensible design

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2.3. Membership of GPRS administration (1/2) Subscription stockpiling: HLR Supports Multiple Subscriber Profile (MSP) Mobile recognizable proof: IMSI One or a few PDP addresses for every client Each subscribed design contains PDP sort (e.g., IP, X.25) PDP address (static, e.g. Subscribed QoS (level 1… 4) Dynamic address permitted VPLMN address permitted GGSN address Screening data (discretionary)

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2.3. Membership of GPRS administration (2/2) Subscription is replicated from HLR to SGSN amid GPRS Attach Part of PDP setting is duplicated to significant GGSNs when a PDP address is actuated Possible PDP address distribution choices Static address assigned from HPLMN Dynamic address apportioned from HPLMN Dynamic address designated from VPLMN HPLMN administrator determines which choices are conceivable

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2.4.1. Portal GPRS Support Node GGSN Typically situated at one of the MSC locales One (or few) per administrator Main capacities Interface to outside information systems Resembles to an information arrange switch Forwards end client information to right SGSN Routes versatile began bundles to right goal Filters end client movement Collects charging data for information organize utilization Data parcels are not sent to MS unless the client has enacted the PDP address

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2.4.2. Serving GPRS Support Node SGSN Functionally associated with BSC, physically can be at MSC or BSC site One for few BSCs or one (or few) per each BSC One SGSN can bolster BSCs of a few MSC locales Main capacities Authenticates GPRS mobiles Handles versatile's enrollment in GPRS arrange Handles portable's portability administration Relays MO and MT information activity TCP/IP header pressure, V.42bis information pressure, blunder control MS-SGSN (ARQ) Collect charging data of air interface utilization

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2.4.3. Different components BG (Border Gateway) (Not characterized inside GPRS) Routes bundles from SGSN/GGSN of one administrator to a SGSN/GGSN of an other administrator Provides security against gatecrashers from outer systems DNS (Domain Name Server) Translates addresses from - configuration to arrangement (i.e. as utilized as a part of Internet) Charging Gateway Collects charging data from SGSNs and GGSNs PTM-SC (Point to Multipoint - Service Center) PTM Multicast (PTM-M): Downlink communicate; no membership; no figuring PTM Group call (PTM-G): Closed or open gatherings; Down/up - interface; figured Geographical region confinement

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2.4.4. GPRS spines Enables correspondence between GPRS Support Nodes Based on private IP organize IPv6 is a definitive convention IPV4 can be utilized as a middle of the road arrangement Intra-PLMN spine Connects GPRS Support Nodes of one administrator Operator chooses the system engineering LAN, indicate point joins, ATM, ISDN, ... Between PLMN spine Connects GPRS administrators through BGs Provides universal GPRS meandering Operators choose the spine in the wandering understanding

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2.5. GPRS portable sorts Class A: Simultaneous GPRS and customary GSM operation Supports synchronous circuit exchanged and GPRS information exchange Class B: Can be appended to both GPRS and traditional GSM benefits all the while Can listen circuit exchanged and GPRS pages (by means of GPRS) Supports either circuit exchanged calls or GPRS information exchange yet not concurrent correspondence Class C: Alternatively joined in GPRS or routine GSM No concurrent operation 'GPRS just' mobiles likewise conceivable (e.g. for telemetric applications)

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2.6. GPRS multislot abilities 1-opening 2-space 3-8 - space

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3. GPRS operations 3.1 Security: Basic security rules Authentication, key administration, figuring 3.2 GPRS join 3.3 Data transmission MO, MT, MO+MT 3.4 Mobility administration 3.5 Interworking with GSM administrations

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3.1. Security: Based on GSM stage 2 Authentication SGSN utilizes same rule as MSC/VLR: Get triplet, send RAND to MS, sit tight for SRES from MS, utilize Kc MS can't confirm the system Key administration in MS Kc created same route from RAND utilizing Ki as in GSM Ciphering calculation is enhanced for GPRS movement ('GPRS - A5') Ciphering is done amongst MS and SGSN User classification IMSI is just utilized if an impermanent character is not accessible Temporary personality (TLLI) is traded over figured connection

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3.2. GPRS Attach GPRS Attach capacity is like IMSI append Authenticate the portable Generate the figuring key Enable the figuring Allocate impermanent character (TLLI) Copy endorser profile from HLR to SGSN After GPRS connect The area of the versatile is followed Communication amongst MS and SGSN is secured Charging data is gathered SGSN comprehends what the supporter is permitted to do HLR knows the area of the MS in exactness of SGSN

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3.3. Information exchange: Basic tenets (1/4) SGSN: Does not translate client information, aside from SGSN may perform TCP/IP header pressure Does not decipher source or goal addresses Sends all bundles to determined GGSN that handles the PDP setting GGSN: Performs discretionary separating Decides where and how to course the parcel

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3.3. Information exchange (2/4) Mobile began (left when MS in HPLMN, right when in VPLMN, no sifting/screening)

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3.3. Information exchange (3/4) Mobile ended (left when MS in HPLMN, right when in VPLMN, with/without sifting/screening)

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3.3. Information exchange (4/4) Mobile started and ended (left MSs in same PLMN, right MSs in various PLMN)

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3.4. Versatility administration (1/3) Instead of Location Area, GPRS utilizes Routing Areas to gathering cells. RA is a subset of LA. Sit without moving: MS is not known by the system (SGSN) STANDBY: MS's area is known in precision of Routing Area MS can use DRX (to spare battery) MS must illuminate its area after each Routing Area change (no compelling reason to educate if MS changes starting with one cell then onto the next inside same Routing Area) Before the system can perform MT information exchange MS must be paged inside the Routing Area MS may start MO information exchange whenever

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3.4. Versatility administration (2/3) READY: MS's area is known in exactness of cell MS must illuminate its area after each cell change MS can start MO information exchange whenever SGSN does not have to page the MS before MT information exchange MS listens ceaselessly GPRS PCCCH direct DRX in READY state is discretionary

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3.4. Versatility administration (3/3) Mobility administration messages: Cell refresh (implic