Gas industry: ascending to the worldwide natural test - Life cycle examination of GTL

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. A coordinated oil and gas organization with considerable compound hobbies. US$ 546m. Sasol has essential and optional posting on the JSE and the NYSEMarket capitalisation of US$ 31 billion (October 2008)Current generation capacityCoal [mostly for change into fuels] - 45 million tons for each annumLiquid fills [from coal

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Gas industry: ascending to the worldwide ecological test - Life cycle investigation of GTL Fred Goede Sasol Limited 7 th Doha Natural Gas Conference 11 March 2009

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An incorporated oil and gas organization with significant compound premiums Sasol has essential and auxiliary posting on the JSE and the NYSE Market capitalisation of US$ 31 billion (October 2008) Current generation limit Coal [mostly for transformation into fuels] - 45 million tons for every annum Liquid energizes [from coal & gas in SA] ~8 mtpa (160 000 bpd ) Liquid fills [from rough oil] ~ 4.6 mtpa (95 000 bpd) Gas to fluids extends outside South Africa Oryx GTL in Qatar 49% stake with Qatar Petroleum; Escravos GTL in Nigeria under development – both nameplate 1.3 mtpa (34 000 bpd) Currently undertaking possibility coal to fluids considers in China, India and US US$ 546m

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Contents Climate science and arrangements Life cycle examination (LCA) inspiration, techniques and results Future atmosphere moderation procedures Communication and mindfulness Conclusion

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ecological substances (environmental change, contamination, water, waste...) ecological desires (governments, society, shareholders… ) sourcing of gas transformation handle (e.g. GTL) items (e.g. clean fills) Protecting the earth

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Reducing carbon outflows is especially testing; incremental lessening will help a bit Models contrast broadly in their appraisals of commitments to the virtual triangle from basic movements (towards administrations), vitality proficiency, and sans carbon vitality

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Natural gas switch has an imperative impact, albeit no silver slug exists

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Scenarios for GHG discharges will move over a "bump" creating nations will expand emanations in any event until 2020 (best case), before decreasing to achieve current levels by 2050 created nations as of now diminishing, pointing practically carbon unbiased by 2050 world can achieve IPCC focus of 550ppm if world discharges are 25% beneath 1990 levels in 2050

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Sasol GTL fuel innovation offers suitable other options to rough determined fuel substantial asset base with regular gas differentiates vitality asset base and in this way enhances vitality security utilizes existing fuel dispersion frameworks items tradable to the end client offers ecological advantages demonstrated innovation that is as of now connected on an extensive scale the world is not shy of vitality – but rather shy of inventive arrangements

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Our LCA history Conducting LCAs since mid 1990s as passage ticket to government transactions and to work in-house understanding Commissioned autonomous LCA study in 2002 transportation fuel advances went for monetising remote common gas LCA contrasted Sasol GTL innovation and a present day refinery (Business not surprisingly) Dr Michael Wang (Argonne National Laboratory) went about as basic outside commentator Further advance was made since, to address the improvement regions recognized in the main reviews

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moreover, LCA helped us comprehend late changes in proposed fuel enactment During January 2007 the accompanying was declared: California Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) for transportation energizes - 2020 focus to decrease carbon force of traveler vehicle powers by no less than 10% Draft EU Fuel Quality Directive focuses on GHG discharge lessening - compulsory detailing of "lifecycle GHG emanations" for powers from 2009 and fuel providers to lessen GHG by 1% p.a. in the vicinity of 2011 and 2020 " License to offer " No information – no market"

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LCA philosophies The EIA procedure is more appropriate approach for assessing GTL generation office ecological impacts, not LCA But rather for the effects of an entire industry, LCA is a superior device A subset approach is called 'well-to-wheels– focussing on transport energizes just, assigning loads on one item and normalizing comes about per unit of separation voyaged, a basic strategy LCA Systems Boundary Expansion approach is more reasonable for worldwide issues like GHG emanations, however is more mind boggling Other GTL items like GTL naphtha, GTL lamp oil, GTL typical paraffin and GTL oil base oils are essential to be incorporated into the LCA

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Two distinct sorts of LCA's

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Position on technique GTL makes co-items that are less carbon serious than practically identical courses (e.g. GTL naphtha versus Refinery naphtha) and on account of GTL naphtha there is a downstream advantage. These advantages CANNOT be caught utilizing a designation approach. Full substitution/uprooting as utilized as a part of framework limit extension for LCA, is required WHY? Substitution/dislodging is a more extensive investigations. Given the basic issues of GHG discharges and future prerequisites, a far reaching perspective is fundamental The future vitality necessities will rely on upon a differences of option fills and reasonable systems are basic to guarantee they all get evenhanded treatment going ahead

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Business as Usual (Refinery) and GTL cases utilized Refining raw petroleum is the current (a within a reasonable time-frame) the principle procedure to convey street transportation energizes. Huge scale (200,000 bbl/d) present day complex/semi-complex refinery was utilized to supply three districts - normal rough and item slate for US, EU and Japan GTL case was scaled up and in light of ostensible 34,000 bbl/d name plate ORYX GTL outline information, the plant that is in operation today 2010 concentration 10ppm (EU), 15ppm (US), 50ppm (Japan) for ULSD No innovation headways were considered

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GTL indicates better particulate and acidifying discharges particulate outflows acidifying emanations (SO x and NO x ) Upstream Production Transportation to client Use Upstream Production Use Conventional Diesel Ultra low sulfur Diesel mix (20% GTL, 80% ultra low sulfur diesel) Conventional Gasoline

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Greenhouse gas comes about per lifecycle stage All refinery items Transportation powers just Basis: 200,000 bbl/d Refinery

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Additional GTL advantages not guaranteed at this stage GTL is a developing industry and innovation that requires redress representing all GTL co-items Looking into the future, facilitate refinements could decrease carbon trouble beneath refinery: Further extend item slate, e.g. typical paraffin and base oil Develop committed motors with vehicle makers Further enhance GTL handle productivity through vitality incorporation GTL offers CO 2 discharges essentially from a solitary source (creation plant), contrasted with tailpipe outflows. Subsequently, carbon catch and capacity should be possible more inexpensively than ignition sources, yet CCS needs an administrative structure and financing motivators (UNEP, 2005)

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Updated GTL LCA comes about – oil base oil contextual investigation The distribution WTW technique yields 454 g CO 2 e/mile for GTL However, utilizing the LCA framework limit extension strategy 291 g CO 2 e/mile (26% superior to traditional diesel) 35% superior to GTL diesel portion strategy, for the most part because of advantages of GTL oil base oil Higher quality GTL oil base oils when contrasted with refinery item, has downstream carbon reserve funds and expanded oil waste interims

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Life cycle GHG outflows contrasting Allocation technique and SBE strategy Case examine – Including Base Oil case

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Key message from LCA The Sasol GTL handle offers noteworthy advantages in air quality because of its lower emanations of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides when contrasted with refinery These advantages are accomplished with no nursery gas punishment and shows surprisingly better enhancements if all GTL items are legitimately represented

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We know the carbon arrangement is mind boggling GTL offers an aggressive piece of the vitality arrangement, yet national and worldwide endeavors are basic to manage the intricate social, monetary and specialized difficulties introduced via carbon A considerably more extensive and multifaceted approach is required and other criteria poisons additionally must be considered, which incorporates engagement with suitable partners to increase shared comprehension of the circumstance "there is no single GHG arrangement, yet with responsibility, timing and right venture choices, business has the chance to have any kind of effect "

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Thank you fred.goede@sasol.com Sasol Limited, P.O. Box 5486, Johannesburg, South Africa. Tel +27-11-344-0145

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