Gaining down to earth ground in parameterizing turbulent blending in the profound sea

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The part of profound blending in the general dissemination. . . . . . . . . . . . . Eq. Shaft. . . z. . . . . Cooling. Upwelling. Upsetting. convection. floods. tidal blending. . Diapycnal blending is important to close the thermohaline course: tides and winds are the possible wellspring of vitality for profound diapycnal blending..

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Slide 1

Gaining down to earth ground in parameterizing turbulent blending in the profound sea Sonya Legg Princeton University, NOAA-GFDL

Slide 2

The part of profound blending in the general flow Cooling Pole Eq convection floods Overturning Upwelling tidal blending Diapycnal blending is important to close the thermohaline dissemination: tides and winds are the feasible wellspring of vitality for profound diapycnal blending. z Climate models require physically based parameterizations of spatially and transiently shifting tidal blending: here we will concentrate on tidal blending.

Slide 3

Tidal Energy Budget Munk and Wunsch, 1998 Most tidal vitality is disseminated in beach front seas, however the little sum dispersed in profound sea has extensive effect on atmosphere. Diverse atmosphere situations (e.g. raising/bringing down sealevel) would have distinctive scattering designs.

Slide 4

Mechanisms of tidal blending in profound sea 1/3 of vitality from sea tides is scattered in profound sea. Utilized for blending stratified sea inside. Some blending neighborhood to geology, e.g. mid-sea edges, seamounts Some vitality conveyed all through sea by waves, prompting to disseminated blending. Barotropic tides Rough geology Internal tides Local blending Wave-geography cooperations Wave-wave associations Wave steepening and breaking Unknowns How much vitality is removed from tides? How is it at first divided amongst waves and blending? Where do waves in the end break and cause blending? Remote and nearby blending Tidal vitality stream outline. Worldwide atmosphere models don't mimic any piece of this chain of occasions, not only the last blending.

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Where does tidal blending happen? Perceptions ( Polzin et al, 1997 ) demonstrate inside blending is focused over harsh geology, e.g. mid-sea edges and seamounts

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Evidence for tidal blending over a blade edged edge: the Hawaiian Ocean Mixing Experiment (Klymak et al, 2005) Diffusivity (assessed from measured dissemination) upgraded over edge Dissipation scales with M2 tidal vitality flux (Klymak et al, 2005)

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Governing parameters for tidal stream over geology Topography : tallness h , width L , profundity H Flow : speed U , wavering recurrence w H Others : coriolis f , lightness recurrence N Nondimensional parameters h Wave slant L Relative steepness Relative stature Topography Tidal outing Froude numbers Flow Analytical reviews expect a few or all of topographic/stream parameters are little – numerical reproductions don't have this limitation.

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Internal tide era by limited sufficiency barotropic tide The applicable question for blending parameterization purposes: what amount of vitality is separated from the barotropic tide? Early hypothetical expectations (e.g. Ringer 1974) expect delicate, low adequacy geology ( g, h/H << 1). Late numerical reproductions (e.g. Khatiwala, 2003) and hypothesis (e.g. St Laurent et al, 2003) look at how tidal change relies on upon limited steepness g and relative tallness h/H, for little adequacy stream. As vitality change duplicates in profound liquid. As h/H 1, vitality transformation is further expanded. Khatiwala 2003 St Laurent et al, 2003 Knife-edge geology Gaussian geography Increasing g Increasing h/H Q: What happens when R L > 1, and Fr = U/(Nh) < 1?

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Numerical reenactments of limited plentifulness tidal stream over Gaussian geography. Key inquiries for parameterization advancement: Do hypothetical forecasts hold for vast abundancy streams? The amount of changed over vitality is scattered locally v. emanated away? Low, wide, shallow topo Low, limited, soak topo Tall, soak topo Baroclinic speed depictions from recreations of tidal stream over Gaussian topo with compelling adequacy U0=2cm/s (Legg and Huijts, 2006; utilizing MITgcm) . Soak geography prompts to era of interior tide shafts: vitality focused on wave attributes.

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Quantitative outcomes: vitality change Rate of vitality transformation from barotropic tide Ratio of dissemination rate to transformation rate St Laurent et al expectation for soak topo, h/H=0.5 Bell's forecast St Laurent et al expectation for soak topo, profound liquid Low, wide geography ; low, contract geology ; tall wide geology ; tall thin geography Theoretical forecasts of vitality transformation concur well with numerical model outcomes. For more extensive topo, just 10% of vitality removed from tide is disseminated locally; for slender topo, substantially more prominent part. All from Legg and Huijts, 2006; utilizing MITgcm

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Probable reason for higher relative dispersal for tightest geography: littler vertical lengthscales in inward tide Low wide shallow topo Low limited soak topo Narrowest topo is the main case without vitality top at most reduced vertical mode. Tall soak topo Tall soak limit topo (Legg and Huijts, 2006)

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Observations of reliance of dissemination on topographic lengthscale Mid Atlantic edge has a great deal less aggregate interior tide vitality flux than Hawaii, yet comparative levels at high mode numbers (m>10). Dissemination levels, particularly at profundity, are comparative, proposing scattering is an element of vitality in high modes. St Laurent and Nash, 2004.

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Are slender bars the main area for dispersal/blending? Low thin soak topo Tall soak topo Dissipation is all in limited shafts, no water driven impacts Possible transient inward pressure driven bounced are an area for upsetting Isopycnal avoidance by expansive adequacy tides: U0 = 24cm/s Large abundancy constraining over vast sufficiency soak topo prompts to neighborhood topples in inside water powered hop like elements. (Legg and Huijts, 2006) Q: Can inside water driven bounced be imperative at more direct (i.e. sensible) compelling speeds?

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Example of inward water driven hops with reasonable constraining, geography: Hawaiian edge Buoyancy field for U0=5cm/s, M2 tidal compelling. Hawaiian edge is tall and soak. Water driven hops create over soak incline amid downslope stream: at stream inversion, hops spread upslope as inside bores. - 700m Asymmetric reaction: slant shape is essential. - 1760m 46km Stratification and geology information from Kaena edge graciousness of Jody Klymak and HOME scientists ( Legg, 2006 )

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Transient water power We would anticipate that an inner wave will be not able proliferate against the stream if Group speed is corresponding to vertical wavelength So we may anticipate that the stream will be supercritical to inside tides of wavelength l z < l c. For Hawaiian edge parameters, l c = 465m at U0=5cm/s , so we expect transient water powered control of components underneath this scale. To have a water driven hop, stream must move from supercritical to subcritical as it streams downslope, i.e. profundity change inside tidal period must be huge. where Depth change is huge if i.e. So transient pressure driven hops might be conceivable if slant is adequately steep

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Hawaiian edge: Dependence of upsetting on slant dh/dx(max) = 0.2, smooth dh/dx(max) = 0.2 Real geology dh/dx(max) = 0.1 dh/dx(max) = 0.06 Snapshots of U(color) and lightness (forms) soon after stream inversion, all with U0=5cm/s Borelike elements are discovered just for dh/dx(max) >> s, joined with an area of dh/dx = s at the highest point of the incline (Legg, 2006)

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Dependence of toppling on stream sufficiency U0=2cm/s U0=5cm/s U0=10cm/s Snapshots of U (shading) and lightness (shapes) soon after stream inversion, for dh/dx(max) = 0.2. Bigger adequacy stream expands degree and power of upsetting.

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Influence of interior bores on scattering Log10 dissemination (time-found the middle value of) for U0=5cm/s, dh/dx=0.2 Time-arrived at the midpoint of dispersal for all reenactments at area of greatest scattering (h=-1170m) The locale influenced by inside bores has a request of extent higher dissemination than the inward wave pillars. Soak inclines and vast abundancy streams have biggest scattering.

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Possible clarification of ``flow-inversion'' blending occasions (Aucan et al,2006) saw at mooring on Hawaiian edge flank Potential temp dissemination streams Flow-inversion blending occasion Downslope stream blending occasion

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Summary of advance on inward tide era and neighborhood blending Recent hypothetical advances in anticipating vitality transformation are upheld by numerical recreations. Just 10% of this vitality is disseminated locally for most geographies For exceptionally contract geography scattering is extraordinarily improved and happens for the most part in interior tide pillars. Transient water driven bounced can create a nearby upgrade of dissemination and blending, when soak inclines are consolidated with huge plentifulness streams, particularly when joined with breaking at basic slants. A large portion of the baroclinic vitality is through transmitting inside tides: Q: What is their destiny?

Slide 21

Fate of inside tides: 1. Wave-wave associations: (a) Parametric Subharmonic Instability MacKinnon and Winters, 2006 At scopes where 2f < w (M2), PSI moves vitality into subharmonic with bigger wavenumbers. At the point when 2f = w (M2) (at 28.9 degrees) dissemination is enormously improved.

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Fate of interior tides: 1. Wave-wave connections: (b) relentless state continuum Garret-Munk-like range is consistent state consequence of wave-wave collaborations (Caillol and Zeitlin, DAO, 2000) E( w ,k) ~ w - 2 m - 2 for w >> f Site D spectra (Garrett and Munk) (taken from Lvov et al, 2005)

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Fate of inside tides: 2. Reflection from basic slants: era of inner bores Wave breaking is incited by reflection from close basic incline, i.e. whenever . Lightness field for 1 st mode interior tide Numerical recreations show blending is conceivable at all states of basic inclines, gave 200m 3km Legg and Adcroft, 2003. so that reflected wave Fr > 1.

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Fate of interior tides: 3. Scrambling from layered incline With grooves, high mode structure found in speed profiles Source: disseminating of inner tide created