G. Matthew Bonham The Maxwell School of Syracuse College Daniel Heradstveit Norwegian Organization of Universal Undertak

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Terrorist assaults can shake the establishments of our greatest structures, however they ... They could give these arms to terrorists, giving them the ...

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G. Matthew Bonham The Maxwell School of Syracuse University Daniel Heradstveit Norwegian Institute of International Affairs Slide 1

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September 11, 2001 Speech [1:21 mins.] " pleasant night. Today, our kindred natives, our lifestyle, our exceptionally opportunity went under assault in a progression of ponder and fatal fear based oppressor acts. The casualties were in planes, or in their workplaces; secretaries, businesspeople and ladies, military and government specialists; mothers and fathers, companions and neighbors. A great many lives were all of a sudden finished by detestable, vile demonstrations of fear. The photos of planes flying into structures, fires smoldering, immense structures falling, have filled us with doubt, frightful pity, and a tranquil, steady outrage. These demonstrations of mass murder were expected to scare our country into bedlam and withdraw. However, they have fizzled; our nation is solid. An extraordinary people has been moved to shield an awesome country. Psychological oppressor assaults can shake the establishments of our greatest structures, however they can't touch the establishment of America. These demonstrations smashed steel, however they can't scratch the steel of American resolve." Slide 2

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The State of the Union Address 29 January 2002 "States like these [North Korea, Iran, and Iraq] and their psychological militant partners, constitute a baneful forces that be , furnishing to debilitate the tranquility of the world. By looking for weapons of mass demolition, these administrations represent a grave and developing threat. They could give these arms to fear mongers, giving them the way to coordinate their scorn. They could assault our partners or endeavor to coerce the United States. In any of these cases, the cost of apathy would be disastrous." Slide 3

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The "Baneful forces that be" and Iran The Rhetoric of the "Vile forces that be" 1. Shrubbery utilized "shrewdness" five times, three times alluding to adversaries. 2. Was this a reverberate of Reagan's "Insidious Empire" talk? 3. Hedge as a "conceived once more" Christian with a dualist perspective of life A battle amongst Good and Evil | Us and Them Slide 4

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The Metaphor: The Axis Powers A term initially utilized by Benito Mussolini when he talked about a Rome-Berlin hub in reference to the bargain of fellowship marked amongst Italy and Nazi Germany in October 1936. 2. Significant Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan Lesser Axis Powers: Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia Slide 5

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The Metaphor: Analysis The expression, "Pivot," brings out: World War II and the foes of the partners. Examinations with Hitler and dreams of "conciliation." A cooperation of nations sharing obligation regarding their activities. 4. A move of center from receptacle Laden to "fear based oppressor states" who may gangs weapons of mass decimation. Slide 6

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The Metaphor: Analysis (proceeded with) State of the Union Address 29 January 2002 "Iran forcefully seeks after these weapons and fares dread, while an unelected few subdue the Iranian individuals' promise for flexibility." Slide 7

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The Metaphor: Analysis (proceeded) Although this expression may have been the development of the President's speech specialists, it contains metonymic ideas that are grounded in experience. Like allegories, metonyms "structure our dialect as well as our considerations, dispositions, and activities" (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980, p. 39). Slide 8

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The Metaphor: Analysis (proceeded with) Metaphor is the initial phase in the development of new understandings of the world. Such rebuilding frequently starts with an ambiguous thought, for example, a "hub," that has for quite some time been disregarded. In this regard, the "Baneful forces that be" is a sort of psychological leap forward - an endeavor to rebuild the worldwide framework like it was in the 1930's. The Axis Powers are underhanded, and something must be done about them. Slide 9

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Interviews Conducted in Iran by Heradstveit Sample: 18 individuals from the "oppositional" first class in Iran, including government officials, government workers, scholastics, writers inside and out Interviews enduring up to a hour and a half with open-finished inquiries were directed in April 2002 Slide 10

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Why Was Iran Accorded Membership In the "Baneful forces that be," notwithstanding… 1. President Khatami's concept of a "discourse of human advancements." 2. Secretary of State Albright's expression of remorse for 1953 and US support of the Shah. 3. Iranian coordinated effort with the West over Afghanistan. Slide 11

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Geopolitics: Interview Comments "The USA needs to assume the part of rescuer of the world. 'In God we trust' is on the American dollar." 2. "This is principally about the USA's security advantages." 3. "Iran's vital part make the nation of awesome enthusiasm to the USA." Slide 13

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Psychology: Interview Comments "The USA has a requirement for an adversary picture. They have dependably evoked foe pictures." 2. "The USA is attempting to discover a character that can join the country politically and socially. The expression is associated with this personality emergency." 3. "The expression was not established on key judiciousness and appears to be inadequately thoroughly considered." Slide 14

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A War Against Iran? 1. Respondents were questionable about the expectations of the USA. 2. They were by all accounts more stressed than they were eager to concede. 3. Some idea Iran would give in rapidly, yet others imagined that the results of a showdown would be not kidding. 4. Talk with Comments [next slide] Slide 15

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A War Against Iran?: Interview Comments "The expressions he utilizes—great and malice—don't propose that he is considering approaching military activity." 2. "The expression fortifies Muslim scorn of the USA." 3. "The USA wishes concurrence with Iran. On the off chance that they are not accommodated, the USA will assert its has free hands to assault." Slide 16

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The "Baneful forces that be" and Iranian Politics Only two respondents rejected the "Vile forces that be" talk as having couple of results for Iranian legislative issues. 2. The "Baneful forces that be" prompted to fear among both the reformers and the traditionalists. 3. The reformers turned out to be significantly distanced and met the traditionalists midway. Slide 17

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The "Baneful forces that be" and Iranian Politics Slide 18

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" A Stab in the Back " "When Bush utilized the term 'Vile forces that be,' it was as though he hit the direct strengths in Iran with a sledge." 2. "The expression came straight after the cooperation between the USA and Iran in Afghanistan. The feeling of double-crossing was solid." 3. "The 'Vile forces that be' is a slap even with every one of the individuals who believed the USA." Slide 19

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Discussion Metaphors are attached to social settings: what can be compelling in one culture may not pass on significance in another. 2. For instance, no Iranian respondents responded to the expression, "Pivot." 3. The expression, "Shrewdness," conveys significantly more grounded negative intentions in Iran than the USA and Europe. Slide 20

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Policy Implications The "Vile forces that be" analogy suggests that all American adversaries are malicious, as well as joined together. 2. On the off chance that a war is battled against Iran, it will be a fight against "the weak fear mongers of the Axis of Evil." Slide 21

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Policy Implications (proceeded with) "Baneful forces that be" has an altogether different significance in West when contrasted with Iran. The Iranians grabbed on "abhorrence," yet not "Pivot." 4. At the point when Western pioneers take part in discourse hones with a crowd of people like Iran, they have to comprehend their own particular explanatory practices… And how their group of onlookers will react to them. Slide 22