From NOTECHS to LH Behavior Markers An Implementation Case Study

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From NOTECHS to LH Behavior Markers An Implementation Case Study BR&TE Cpt. Harry Neb, Lufthansa German Airlines FRA PC/L Human Factors Operational Input Hans-Jürgen Hörmann, PhD Boeing Research & Technology Europe Madrid, Spain Safety and Human Factors Royal Aeronautical Society - Human Factors Group Seminar on Assessment & Accreditation, London April 30, 2004

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Overview BR&TE Principles of Behavior Assessment in NOTECHS/JARTEL Development of Lufthansa's New Behavior Marker System Crosslinking NOTECHS to LH Interpersonal Competences The Implementation Case: Lufthansa's Evaluation Method Usability Study Summary

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NOTECHS/JARTEL Principles and Practice of Behavior Marker Application Hans-Juergen Hoermann, PhD Boeing Research & Technology Europe RAeS, April 30, 2004 Research & Technology Europe

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Why NOTECHS? Jolt OPS (2001) 1.940, 1.945, 1.955, and 1.965, asking for an assessment of flight groups' CRM abilities. "the flight team must be evaluated on their CRM abilities as per a procedure satisfactory to the Authority and distributed in the Operations Manual." (1.965) "The reason for such an appraisal is to: give input to the group all in all and separately and serve to recognize retraining; and be utilized to enhance the CRM preparing framework." (1.965).

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NOTECHS/JARTEL Project Team IMASSA NOTECHS 1997 - 1998 JARTEL 1998 - 2001

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Initial Setup of NOTECHS For the reasons for the venture, non-specialized aptitudes (NoTechS) were characterized as... " the subjective and social aptitudes of flight group individuals in the cockpit, not straightforwardly identified with air ship control, framework management, and standard working strategies (SOPs)" (Avermaete, 1996) Requirements for NOTECHS… to survey the abilities of an individual pilot, as opposed to a group appraisals in view of recognizable practices accurately characterized, socially strong , solid , and practicable to be reasonable for use crosswise over Europe by both substantial and little administrators

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NOTECHS Development Information Sources Flin & Martin (1998, 2001) audit of existing BM frameworks top to bottom writing study on chose NTS ideas Airlines' present practices Air France KLM (WILSC/SHAPE) Dutch CAA (RLD) University of Texas Line-LOS Checklist Lufthansa (Quick Reference List)

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Leadership & administration aptitudes Situation mindfulness Decision making Co-operation Team building & keeping up Category Element Considering others Behavior Supporting others Helps other group individuals in requesting circumstances Offers help Conflict settling The NOTECHS System Non-specialized aptitudes (Avermaete & Kruijsen, 1998)

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The NOTECHS Framework Categories Elements (Rhona Flin et al., 2003)

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JARTEL – The NOTECHS Health Check Influence of social contrasts on the utilization of NOTECHS crosswise over Europe Inter-rater understanding and consistency while evaluating similar situations Applicability and handiness in genuine check circumstances Study 1 : Experimental approach N = 105 IPs from all over Europe evaluating eight recorded situations with great and terrible cases of NTS practices following a half day acquaintance course Study 2 : Operational approach N = 25 IPs from five aircrafts took an interest in the achievability check of applying NOTECHS in genuine preparing and check circumstances

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Only detectable conduct is to be evaluated Need for a specialized result Repetition required Rating should recognize satisfactory and inadmissible NTS Explanation required NOTECHS Principles The 5 standards of NOTECHS application practically speaking:

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Behavior is characterized in the word reference as action or response of something under determined conditions. Plain practices Actions that others can specifically watch, similar to exercises, developments, stances, motions, positions, outward appearances, discourse, or social communications Covert practices Processes, that can't be straightforwardly watched, similar to contemplations, comprehension, emotions, physiological reactions Behavior perception is the arranged accumulation of behavioral information while subjects are occupied with different exercises in specific circumstances with the goal to survey the gathered behavioral information against indicated gauges. Essentials of Behavior Observation

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NOTECHS Application – An Example Results of an aircraft review - NOTECHS to recognize preparing needs (Study led by German Aerospace Center (DLR), 02/2000) 5-point Rating Scale Behavioral Elements of NOTECHS

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NOTECHS Application – An Example Results of a carrier review - NOTECHS to look at preparing impacts (Study led by German Aerospace Center (DLR), 02/2000) 5-point Rating Scale Behavior Elements of NOTECHS

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NOTECHS Application – An Example Results of a carrier review - NOTECHS to distinguish preparing needs (Study directed by German Aerospace Center (DLR), 02/2000) 5-point Rating Scale Behavior Categories of NOTECHS

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References Aberdeen website: www.psyc.abdn.ac.uk/serv02.htm EAAP site: www.eaap.net Sofreavia site: www.sofreavia.fr/JARTEL Avermaete, J. van & Kruijsen, E. (Eds.) (1998). NOTECHS. The Evaluation of Non-Technical Skills of Multi-Pilot Aircrew in Relation to the JAR-FCL Requirements. Last Report NLR-CR-98443. Amsterdam: NLR. Flin, R. et al. (2003). Improvement of the NOTECHS (non-specialized aptitudes) framework for evaluating pilots' CRM abilities. Human Factors in Aerospace Safety , 3(2), 97-119. Goeters, K.M. (Ed.) (2004). Flight Psychology – Practice and Research . Aldershot: Ashgate. Hoermann, H.J. (2001). Social varieties in the impression of team conduct in multi-pilot air ship. Le Travail Humain, 64(3), 247-268. O'Connor, P. et al. (2002). Building up a technique for assessing CRM aptitudes: An European point of view. Universal Journal of Aviation Psychology , 12(3), 265-288.

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What Next? BR&TE Principles of Behavior Assessment in NOTECHS/JARTEL Development of Lufthansa's New Behavior Marker System Crosslinking NOTECHS to LH Interpersonal Competences The Implementation Case: Lufthansa's Evaluation Method Usability Study Summary

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