Filtering through the literary proof: Etymological variety in seventeenth century Amsterdam

Sifting through the textual evidence linguistic variation in 17th century amsterdam l.jpg
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Accentuation: genuinely customary, yet inadequate with regards to periods as in the travelog ... Sentence structures: comparative unpredictability to travelog however with marginally more parataxis ...

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Filtering through the literary proof: Linguistic variety in seventeenth century Amsterdam Mike Olson University of Wisconsin-Madison

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Introduction Text sorts utilized for semantic confirmation can influence how we see dialect use in the past Formal writings: more institutionalized and less like spoken Informal writings (e.g. individual compositions): more variety and nearer to spoken Traditional histories of Dutch spotlights on standard dialect, particularly for 17 th century Amsterdam Only recounts part of the story - more casual writings can uncover dialect use in different areas Corpus of individual works from Amsterdam in 17 th century Establish criteria for content determination in light of level of orality , or closeness to talked dialect Qualitative investigation of reports by Amsterdam locals in various registers

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Working Hypothesis More formal writings utilize more uniform spelling and sentence structure and are less normal for talked dialect Formal messages regularly created considering a standard dialect Standards have a tendency to dishearten variety and hold old elements More casual writings have a tendency to contain more variety and speak to talked dialect all the more firmly Spoken dialect is actually more factor than composed Personal works frequently adjust less to a standard Thus, casual, individual works ought to uncover changes in talked dialect before they get to be obvious in the formal composed standard

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Personal Writings Linguistic histories 'from beneath' (Elspass 2005; Elspass et al. 2007) Writers that speak to "ordinary" individuals, not really part of a tip top social classes Text sorts that reflect talked dialect and variety as nearly as could be expected under the circumstances Search for examples of variety in dialect change Observe changes in advance

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Language of Proximity 'Dialect of Proximity' or 'Theoretical Orality' (Koch & Oesterreicher 1985) Language is encoded graphemically in writings and phonically through talked dialect Both media can speak to pretty much "nearness" or relative 'orality', e.g. Writings: authoritative record versus translated talk with Spoken: address before parliament versus discussion with a dear companion Language that reflects more vicinity or orality has a tendency to hold fast less to semantic standards and show more variety in spelling and accentuation contain less unpredictable linguistic developments and less thick data structures

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Language of Proximity/Distance

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Variation and Change in Texts ought to speak to talked dialect as nearly as could be expected under the circumstances (Schneider 2002) "the surface appearance of a content, including criteria like the nearness and recurrence of colloquial structures, the nearness of variety, and the general impression of genuineness, assumes a part in surveying a content" (2002:85) Other elements incorporate relationship amongst essayist and peruser and general attack of content with others from same discourse group

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Characteristics of Spoken Language Texts more illustrative of talked dialect are composed by a writer in a cozy association with the peruser incorporate more variety in spelling and accentuation contain more regional structures demonstrate less perplexing sentence/data structures

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Dutch Language Histories of Dutch by and large concentrate on standard dialect (e.g. Van Bree 1987; Van Loey 1970; De Vooys 1967; Van der Wal & Van Bree 2008) Numerous individual records in Dutch chronicles from Early Modern Period (e.g. Lindeman et al. 1993; Lindeman et al. 1994) Diaries and Journals, travelogs, family histories, and individual letters Archives have documentation about scholars of writings Primarily delivered by individuals from higher social class 'Cruising Letters' in British National Archives (Van Gelder 2006) Thousands of individual letters caught by British beginning in 1650s and enduring more than a few maritime wars with the Netherlands Represent a more extensive scope of individuals than found in files Little is thought about the authors Letters dated just from the mid seventeenth century on Personal reports can give new sources to concentrating on the advancement of communicated in Dutch (see Goss 2002; Hendriks 1998)

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Amsterdam in the seventeenth century The investigations of Dutch talked in Amsterdam amid the seventeenth penny. generally in view of more formal writings Vangassen (1965) utilizes writings from legislative, municipal, and religious foundations in Amsterdam, however just spotlights on a couple sound changes Weijnen's (1975) Zeventiende-eeuwse Taal incorporates information from a few Amsterdam writers: more orality: Bredero and Coster's Kluchten and Vondel's Hekeldichten less orality: Hooft, Vondel, Vos (Jan), Luyken, Brandt Comparison of individual compositions with more formal writings reveals insight into various phonetic information accessible for 17 th century Amsterdam

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Selection of Texts [1] The digitized form in the DBNL:[2] Letter numbers: 5, 17, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51

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Qualitative Analysis of the Texts that are more illustrative of talked dialect Context : Relationship amongst writer and target group Spelling & Punctuation : variety in orthographic traditions Dialectal Forms : non-standard structures that uncover provincial characteristics Sentence Structures : many-sided quality and thickness Morphological variety Pronouns : mij versus mijn Verb frames : Subject-Verb Agreement and helping verb with geweest Case markers : Determiners, Adjectives, Nouns

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Formal Prose: P.C. Hooft, Nederlandsche Historien 1642-47 Recounts history of youthful Republic beginning in mid sixteenth century Early impact on institutionalization of Dutch (Van der Wal & Van Bree 2008:221)

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Formal Prose: Characteristics of Spoken Language Context: distributed content, altered to institutionalize spelling and accentuation Spelling & Punctuation: next to no variety, standard accentuation Mainly z in onset and s in bunches, however little var. versierdt versus verziert Small variety in g and gh : teegens versus teeghens ; kreeg versus kreegh Dialectal structures : one case Unrounding: ten algemeenen Landbestier Sentence structures : perplexing and minimal with various inserted conditions and developed participial expressions Al 't welk gâa geslaaghen en ooverwooghen by de geenen, pass on, in zoodaanighe stoffe wel 't zuiverste gezicht hadden, genoomen werd voor teeken van 't genaaken eenigher groote en zwaarlyk stilbaare ontsteltenis; rollende dit werk operation 't zelve spoor, waar langs de tweedraght en beroerten van Vrankryk waaren aangeheeven.

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Formal Prose: Morphological Variation Pronouns : moderately rare, dependably mij (never mijn ) Verb Forms : Subject-Verb Agreement: Primarily fits in with cutting edge standard with little variety in first sg. frames; no apocope of - n in different structures dat ik zyn'af koomst, aardt en fortuyn in 't kort ten toon stelle dien ik zelf gezien heb zou~zoude variety: solitary zou - structures are genuinely occasional, while plurals structures are dependably zouden en ondertussen zou men arbeiden dat hy zich, anders, luttel met haar bekreunen zouw dat hy zeekere plaatzen, t'onderpandt inhouden zoude Helping Verb with geweest : dependably type of zyn dien 't doch, ... , te min mooghelyk geweest was Case-Marking : Archaic genitives: not in communicated in Dutch assortments (Weijnen 1975:43) Des Konings breedstrekkende maght ; in 't groenste zijner jeught Regular utilization of affectation: Sing. questions frequently end with - e and plurals demonstrate no apocope of - n in bekooring van koninglyken naame ; als een welverknocht, en gevolghzaam Ryk ; veele voeten in der aarde ; gedreeven tot de waapenen additionally with some diminished structures: van de maate zyner maght Graphemic truncated structures: zyn' armen van zelf jookende

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Official Document: Schout en Schepenen, Justitieboek 1650 Justitieboek contains portrayals of wrongdoings in Amsterdam Formulaic dialect in some short, independent writings

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Official Document: Characteristics of Spoken Language Context : Written by various writers for open record Spelling & Punctuation : conventional comma utilize/consistent spelling with little variety in and between various essayists: s versus z; g versus gh Dialectal structures : ar~er variety: dartigh; dartien ft~cht variety : verkoft for " verkocht' Sentence structures : unpredictable and minimal provisos, implanted subclauses and developed participial expressions (run of the mill lawful discourse) Jannitge gerrits van Vlaenderen oud omtrent 21 jaeren, hebbende haer la{ten} misbruijcken van een jode, sijnde een getrouwt man, bij wien sij {is} beswangert en sij wel drij jaeren bij geslaepen heeft, is bij schepenen gebannen uijt dese stede, bunny vrijheijd, een mijl int ronde nook tijd van twee jaeren, ...

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Official Document: Morphological Variation Pronouns : no utilization of mij because of nature of the content Verb Forms : Subject-Verb Agreement: Relatively few curved verb frames because of the way of the content, however standard standards of understanding zou~zoude variety: seldom utilized, yet a couple soude Helping Verb with geweest : dependably type of zyn Case-Marking : Archaic genitives: a couple in like manner expressions int' spinhuijs deser stad van de dood haers keeps an eye on Determiners: some in like manner expressions, frequently just de , dese , ... With the exception of time adverbials: nook tijd van twee jaeren; cave 10e feburarij And regular expressions: t' sijnen huijse Nouns: sing. objects with/without - e : uijt de hechtenisse/hechtenis uijt deser stad versus uijt dese stad versus uijt deser stede versus uijt dese stede plurals as a rule with - n yet in some cases not: operation aenclachte

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Diary/Travelog: Joan Huydecoper, Sr., 1635 Composed amid a trek to Poland and Sweden in 1635 as individual from a conciliatory mission from the Netherlands

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Diary/Travelog: Characteristics of Spoken Language Context : may speak to more formal discourse, "official" setting Written with sections for every day in "journal" style, omitt