Figuring - The Following 10 Years Vast Memory and Transfer speed : Suggestions for All inclusive Access to Data

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Development of the World Bank of, not cash, but rather Knowledge. Frameworks, alleged geriatric ... World delivers a Billion Billion(1018) bytes of data each ...

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Registering - The Next 10 Years Infinite Memory and Bandwidth : Implications for Universal Access to Information Raj Reddy Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, USA April 6, 2001 Talk displayed at Georgia Tech 10 th Anniversary Convocation

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Future Technology Computational power duplicates at regular intervals (Moore's Law) 100-crease change like clockwork Disk Densities twofold like clockwork 1000-overlay change like clockwork Optical transfer speed multiplying like clockwork 10000-overlap change like clockwork Infinite Bandwidth and Memory before Computation Cost diminishing, thickness expanding

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What does the future hold? We can see a few looks without bounds Universities without dividers, Computers that never fizzle and self recuperating programming Every home with giga PCs associated by gigabit systems Access to all the distributed imaginative works of the world at whatever time anyplace anybody Emergence of the World Bank of, not cash, but rather Knowledge Systems, purported geriatric apply autonomy, that help the incapacitated lead ordinary lives, and Systems that give whatever is left of us superhuman capacities, such as completing a month's work in a day

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Universal Access to Information readily available Access to all human learning: Anyone Anywhere Anytime

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All Human Knowledge Recorded Information Books Periodicals (diaries, daily papers) Music, musical show, move Paintings, Sculptures and Monuments Movies, video Databases, programming Suppose the greater part of this were on the Web

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Examples from Lecture: Michael Shamos on UL Books: A Child's History of England Art: Greek Art

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Examples from Lecture: Michael Shamos on UL Books: A Child's History of England Art: Greek Art

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What is a book? What is an advanced book ? Accumulation of static substance Collection of element interactive media content Linearly sorted out Browsable, safe Selected by an Author as related Selected by User as related Occupying a solitary physical area No physical presence Physically bound between cover Instantly Transmittable

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What is a Library? Gathering of things Linearly sorted out (racks) Chosen by spending requirements Occupying physical space Cataloged for get to

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What is a Digital Library? Accumulation of advanced things (conceivably tremendous ) Encompassing everything (sometime in the not so distant future) Organized self-assertively Occupying no physical space Fully content-searchable

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Universal Library Implications Elimination of time, space, cost requirements Democratization of data "Learning is power" Hyperlinks to related data Preservation and Dissemination of Knowledge speedier and more extensive Backup safeguarding Preservation of culture

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Universal Library Implications Research Web of insightful data, surveys Teaching Support for separation instruction Academic distributed Virtual galleries Interactivity

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Universal Library Applications Acess to "Conceived Digital" Information World delivers a Billion Billion(10 18 ) bytes of data each year(Lyman and Varian) 90% is put away carefully Digital gallery Digital visit guide What's in the Taj Mahal?

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Universal Library Applications Research collaborator What did Newton expound on shading? What are Moslem perspectives on race? Showing asset "Carry on" books in virtual reality Real-time clarifications Business Data mining

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We Can Store Everything 1 book = 500 pp. 1MB uncompressed – 300KB compacted 10 8 to 3x 10 8 books = ~10 14 bytes = 100 terabytes Over 100 million PCs on the Internet At 1 GB each, >100 petabytes now 1 GB of circle expenses ~$3 100 terabytes < $300 thousand to $1 million

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Non-literary Material 1 Movie = 10 GB 1 petabyte = 100,000 motion pictures All the films ever constructed! Sound 1 petabyte = 3000 years of music All music ever performed or recorded Paintings and Photos @ 1 MB 1 petabyte = 1 billion painting or photographs

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Non-printed Material Gore's Digital Earth "A multi-determination, three-dimensional representation of the planet, into which we can implant tremendous amounts of geo-referenced information." Area of Earth » 1/2 peta m 2 1000 bytes/m 2 possible 2 MB/m 2 not handy yet Þ 10 21 bytes = 1 zettabyte {peta-, exa-, zetta-, yotta-}

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Technological Challenges Input (examining, digitizing, OCR) Data representation content, documentations, pictures, website pages Navigation and Search Multilingual Issues Output (voice, pictures, virtual reality) Synthetic Documents

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Universal Library Design Modular Technology modules (e.g. machine interpretation) Distributed Mirror destinations Multiple interfaces Human (dialects, societies, education) Machine

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Universal Library Design Speech input/yield Pictorial yield Language bolster Translation partners Summarization apparatuses Synthetic reports Encyclopedia-on-request

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Input Issues Non-advanced media Conversion, filtering, remedy Triple console, uncorrected OCR Digital media Formats, transformations, shading representation ASCII, HTML, SGML, XML, PDF, PS, TEX JPEG, TIFF, GIF?

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Input Issues Structured matter Musical documentation, Laban Chemistry 3D Items Resource allotment (what's first?) Duplication of exertion (no registry)

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Metadata Data around a thing not part of the thing Bibliographic Format, medium, encoding, determination Provenance Reliability, honesty Permissions Who creates metadata?

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Navigation Making Sense Of The World's Knowledge Browsing, finding, looking, flying Fractal see Keys are granularity and availability View entire accumulations or one glyph Understanding structure of data

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Searching Mathematics

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MATHEMATICA Canonical Form: Integrate[ Times[Power[E,Times[-1,Power[V1,2]]], Sin[Power[V1,2]]], {V1,0,Infinity}] Searching Mathematics

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Multilingual Issues Character sets Representations Íîäà ôèçè÷åñêè íàõîäèòñÿ â çäàíèè Èçâåñòèé Нода физически находится в здании Известий Multilingual route Translation help

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Synthetic Documents got naturally from recovered data Multilingual interpretation Abstracts, rundowns, glossaries Encyclopedia-on-request

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Information Reliability Existence ¹ legitimacy Universal Library Philosophy Avoid esteem judgments Provide data from which clients (and projects) can survey legitimacy Source, notoriety, recency, audits, consistency

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Scaling Problems Search administrations (e.g. Altavista) file >10 8 reports Suppose there were 10 12 ? By what means can a billion clients get to a similar thing immediately?

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Policy Challenges Use of copyrighted material Economics (Who pays? Who gets?) Privacy Reliability of data Change in the way of educating

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Use Of © Content Philosophy: must pay for utilize Authors, distributers won't endure Implied permit Automated consents Bulk permitting Compulsory authorizing Owner CAN'T cannot; client MUST pay

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Economics Flat-expense memberships (e.g. HBO) Metered utilize (electric organization) Microcharge (Tobias "clickl") Free (paid by government) Automated consents Use measured by innovation

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Operating Model Single entry for access to all data Universal Library gives input, get to, multilingual, yield and union apparatuses Universal Library will be a model checking operation Registry of digitized works

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Operating Model Specialized accumulations curated by masters, gave to Universal Library Foreign gathering performed in outside nations Universal Library will be reflected in ~12 locales around the globe

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Universal Library Status >13,000 advanced volumes Art Newspapers Music, video Portal to several different accumulations Visit

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Projects Navigator Academic electronic distributed Electronic Union Catalog Books out of copyright books no longer available Software dissemination

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Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions Barely 10% of all open data is accessible on the Internet Government needs to assume an authority part in creating computerized libraries Significant specialized and operational difficulties in relocating and keeping up possessions in computerized shape Intellectual Property rights should be tended to encourage creation and get to advanced libraries Recommendations Support examine: meta information, versatility, various dialects, security, and convenience Create testbeds: million book extend Place all open administrative data online Preserve IP privileges of makers by making charge impetuses for open utilization of online copyrighted data