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Catastrophe Hazard Moderation: The Experience of Sri Lanka by . P. Dias Amarasinghe Secretary, Service of Calamity Administration and Human Rights, Sri Lanka. SRI LANKA. Essential Data. Land Area -65,525 Sq km Populace -19.6 Million Pop. Thickness -309 for every km 2

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Calamity Risk Mitigation: The Experience of Sri Lanka by P. Dias Amarasinghe Secretary, Ministry of Disaster Management and Human Rights, Sri Lanka

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SRI LANKA Basic Information Land Area -65,525 Sq km Population -19.6 Million Pop. Thickness -309 for each km 2 Literacy rate -91.8 % Ethnic Mix - Sinhalese -74 % Tamil -18 % Muslim -7 % Others -1 %

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Hazard Profile of Sri Lanka: Major common dangers - surges, dry spells, violent winds, avalanches and waterfront disintegration. Other limited dangers - lightning strikes, plagues and impacts of ecological contamination Human initiated perils - risks coming about because of deforestation, aimless coral, jewel and sand mining Tsunami Number of individuals influenced by cataclysmic events in Sri Lanka 1974-2005

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FLOODS IN SRI LANKA 103 River bowls. 10 streams are considered as significant waterways Kalu,Kelani,Gin,Nilwala,and Mahaweli are real waterways bringing on surges. Sri Lanka has two storms South West (mid May to September) and North East (December to February) Floods in Sri Lanka are because of exorbitant rain fall amid rainstorm. Most elevated precipitation recorded is 805mm inside 24 hours (1897) Unplanned urbanization, absence of fitting waste transfer frameworks and deficient support of streets have brought about tempest surges in real urban areas notwithstanding amid between monsoonal downpours Mitigation Measures Construction of surge assurance dams inside real waterway bowls ( Kelani, Gin, Nilwala and Kukuleganga). Some of these have been implicit the start of the 20 th Century.

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Floods… … ..Contd. Preoccupation of Major waterways, for example, River Mahaveli and development of new supplies under such redirections. For instance, development of Kothmale supply has relieved surges in Gampola region

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CYCLONES Number of real Cyclone storms that achieved the shoreline of Sri Lanka from 1981 is 16 November-December period (north east rainstorm) is recorded as violent wind season in Sri Lanka. The normal lifetime of Cyclone tempests in our district is around 4-5 Days.

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Average Rainfall and Variability 1931-1960 and 1961-1990

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DROUGHT Every Year some place in the Country a few people are confronted with dry spells of brief span which are just of nearby criticalness. Dry spells influencing greater districts (eg. a region) do happen each 3-4 years. Serious dry seasons of national criticalness happen at regular intervals . Extreme dry seasons happened in 1947-49,1953-56,1965,1974-77,1981-83,1985,1995-96,2000-01. From 1948 upwards of 26 dry spells have been accounted for. Dry season moderation endeavors goes back to Sinhalese rulers' days. Alleviation measures were both basic and non-basic… … .(contd.)

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Drought… … .Contd Kings set up water system plans both major and minor for water gathering for development and also to bathe and other residential purposes. Pre-regular development gatherings are held with the investment of locale/divisional level regulatory heads, water system masters and ranchers. In view of the accessibility of water choice in regards to aggregate degree to be developed, products to be developed, when to begin development, when to begin issue of water, and so forth are talked about and settled upon at these gatherings. These frameworks are still in operation. Rain water collecting frameworks are currently well known among individuals for both upland developments and furthermore for residential purposes. Redirection of waterways, for example, River Mahaveli

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LAND SLIDES Badulla, Nuwaraeliya, Rathnapura Kegalle,Kandy,Matale and Galle regions are inclined to Land slides. Human settlement and foundations undermined via Landslides. Explanations behind increment – Unplanned serious development, non designed development, deforestation, disregard of land and each expanding human intercession. Avalanche moderation work began in 1990 with help from UNDP and UNCHS.

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COASTAL EROSION Sri Lanka has a coastline of 1585Km. 50-55% of the coastline is inclined to disintegration Indiscriminate sand and coral mining, inappropriate locating or outlining of waterfront structures have contributed to a great extent to expanded disintegration levels. Around 175000-285000 sq. meters of drift line are last every year. Relief exercises initiated in 1986 with the execution of Coastal Erosion Management Plan of 1986.

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Other Measures Building rules in regard of surge inclined ranges, zones inclined to twisters and highwinds, and avalanches have been produced and are being talked about among experts before acquainted with neighborhood specialists. Rules for security of structures and wellbeing from lightning strikes have likewise been produced. Debacle hazard moderation is being mainstreamed by joining arrangements and procedures into the following ten year national arrangement.

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The Tsunami obliteration brought about the acknowledgment of the requirement for thorough calamity chance administration, instead of post debacle alleviation or better reaction

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Prior to 2005, Sri Lanka had no legitimate system for catastrophe administration Disaster Management Act. No. 13 of 2005 was approved on 13 May 2005, to give a lawful structure to calamity hazard administration in Sri Lanka National Council for Disaster Management (NCDM) Under the Chairmanship of H.E. the President Disaster Management Center (DMC) As the central organization for calamity administration

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Development of danger zonation maps for defenseless areas - in advance City of Galle – (help UNU, ISDR) Balapitiya

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Programs to make mindfulness

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School programs School programs include: Awareness creation Identification of clearing destinations Identification of a group of people on call Mock Drill Disaster administration incorporated into school curriculum Several colleges have likewise fused debacle administration into important courses.

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Awareness Material on Disasters

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Initiative for Disaster Risk Management A system to distinguish and Coordinate multi-partner endeavors in the following 10 years an all encompassing methodology a Road Map Towards building a more secure Sri Lanka

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Initiative for Disaster Risk Management Priority ventures recognized under seven topical regions: Policy, institutional commands and Institutional improvement. Danger, Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tsunami and Multi Hazard Early Warning System Preparedness and Response Plans Mitigation and mix of DRR into improvement arranging Community based Disaster Risk Management Public Awareness, Education and Training Government of Sri Lanka is resolved to execute the Road Map proposition.

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Thank you