Feelings If just it were as basic as the graphs beneath

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Points of view to Consider in Understanding Emotionality

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Feelings If just it were as basic as the outlines beneath…

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Perspectives to Consider in Understanding Emotionality… to start: Broca (1878) and "Le Grande Lobe Limbique" (Grand Limbic Lobe) – this is an a reference entirely to anatomical association. Papez (1930) – Linked the structures including the "Limbic System" as having a part in feelings. Paul McLean (1949) developed the Papez Circuit in the article "Psychosomatic Brain and the Viscera." (see ANGEL site for the first article).

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Papez Circuit (around 1930) From: Bear et al., 2007

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McLean's Conceptual Model Neocortex - Thought (counting arranging, dialect, rationale & will, mindfulness) Limbic System - Emotion (sentiments, relationship/supporting, pictures and dreams, play) Reptilian Brain - Instinct (survival, breathing/gulping/pulse, startle reaction) See ANGEL site for McLean's unique 1949 article Diagram from: www.sustainablesonoma.org/.../threebrains.html

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From McLean (1949)

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Another indicate consider: Attributing Function to the Structural Arrangement of the Limbic System (simpler said than done). Various reviews prompted to incomprehensible discoveries making meanings of the limbic framework confounding. The accompanying mind ranges are most generally viewed as parts of the Limbic System since they seem to assume a part in at least one parts of feeling (e.g. instinctive cerebrum, passionate memory, neuroendocrine control): Cingulate Gyrus Hippocampus Parahippocampus Gyrus Amygdala Septal Nuclei Thalamus Hypothalamus

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… More Points to Consider: What about the part of the Basal Ganglia (e.g., Nucleus Accumbens or Ventral Striatum)? Shouldn't something be said about the brainstem structures? Shouldn't something be said about structures that are neurally and artificially connected to the conventional "Limbic System"? Morgane, Caller & Mokler (2005) stress the significance of a limbic forebrain/limbic midbrain complex.

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From: Morgane, Caller & Mokler (2005)

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… Even More Points to Consider: The Limbic System is truly a "Non Limbic System" since particular capacity can't be doled out to particular neural pathways (Robert L. Isaacson, 1992 & 2007), notwithstanding the dissimilarity in distinguishing framework structures. Both basic and practical parts of the "Limbic System" ideas are excessively complete and excessively ambiguous, making it impossible, making it impossible to fill in as logical clarification or as a valuable reasonable model, thusly the term ought to be relinquished (note: another book entitled The Non Limbic System by RL Isaacson is in planning). There is a "fluffiness" in the cerebrum frameworks that can never be maintained a strategic distance from - the neural systems cover and interface (and are thickly interconnected) with the end goal that they can't be subsumed under tactile OR engine frameworks. Restriction of capacity exists in a general sense just and past this, everything is not as flawless and clean as is by and large thought (this is a vital viewpoint to recall to open one's psyche about how the cerebrum functions). At long last, the contention is truly not about whether the Limbic System exists or does not exist, but rather in the utilization of exact wording and a feasible theoretical model.

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How Might this Issue Be Resolved? Rolf Kottler (2003) proposes these rules: Establish the exact structure & work that "limbic" alludes to so as to decrease perplexity (e.g., be particular about what is implied by "limbic brokenness"). Supplant the expression "limbic" with a more exact term (e.g., as opposed to stating "limbic thalamus," state it as the "front core of the thalamus" or considerably more particularly, for example, "anteromedial" thalamic core). Abstain from drawing upon "Limbic System" ideas for building new theories since it expands on an as of now shaking theoretical structure. Know that "Limbic System" ideas suggest structure and capacity, which is helpful in highlighting unanswered inquiries concerning the instrument of feeling, cognizance or the self. Be that as it may, this is NOT a logical clarification on the grounds that the points of interest still should be worked out.

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Having said this, lets return to feelings with the expression "Limbic System" in absentia : How are feelings characterized? Behavioral States Motivational States Moods &Background Emotions Emotion Systems+ Basic Emotions Social Emotions* Approach Reward Depression Seeking Happiness Pride Withdrawal Punishment Anxiety Panic Fear Embarrassment Thirst Mania Anger Rage Quilt Hunger Cheerfulness Fear Disgust Shame Pain Contentment Sadness Maternal love Craving Worry (Surprise) Sexual love (Contempt) Infatuation Admiration Jealousy Emotions are arranged in a continuum of reaction orders. The more primitive classes, towards the left, relate to enthusiastic responses, though the more intricate classes, towards the privilege, relate to social correspondence. Regularly, scientists taking a shot at creatures have embraced a plan depending on reward and discipline, while examine in people has frequently utilized supposed "essential" feelings, and psychiatric or social mental reviews have used much more intricate develops, for example, the "social" emotions* , whose neural underpinnings are at present ineffectively caught on. Replicated with consent from Adolphs' 2002 article that showed up in Behavioral & Cognitive Neuroscience Review. From: Ralph Adolphs (2002), Neural Systems for Recognizing Emotions + Panksepp J: Affective Neuroscience . New York: Oxford UniversityPress; 1998 .

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Two parts are fundamental for the acknowledgment of essential feelings: Perceptual Processing (taking in all the remarkable snippets of data from the jolt) Recognition of the Emotional Meaning of the Stimulus, that is, connecting the boost with beforehand learned data which incorporates the passionate reaction from one's information base, the "word" or lexical mark, and information about the engine "portrayal" that is expected to deliver the feeling (i.e. the engine reaction of a grin produces sentiments/acknowledgment of the feeling joy). From: Adolphs (2002), Neural Systems for Recognizing Emotions

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What Brain Structures are Involved in Recognizing Emotion From Facial Expression? A Feed-Forward & Feedback Sweep of Information Processing Within ~100 msec the essential visual cortex and optional visual cortical zones (e.g., unrivaled transient area) extricate data from the outward appearance and figure out whether it is conveying feelings. Amygdala and Orbitofrontal cortices take this unique coarse observation and refine it by means of an input procedure: - it apportions thoughtfulness regarding certain components -it triggers related learning through projection to other neocortical zones and to the hippocampus (recovers applied information about the passionate). - it produces a passionate reaction in the individual by means of associations with engine structures, hypothalamus and brainstem cores (where enthusiastic reaction is created). This component, by means of a nourish forward instrument, can prompt… -the enthusiastic state in the individual seeing the jolt by means of a reproduced involvement through initiation of the privilege somatosensory cortices. (However, this can likewise happen without direct incitement from engine districts). Adolphs, 2002

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Sweep of Information Processing for Emotional Facial Expression Adolphs, 2002

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Neural Basis of Other Stimuli Sounds of appall in dialect and neural connections are hard to track, making this kind of prosody following a test (note: nauseate in outward appearances is a typical jolt). Prosody relies on upon right side of the equator BUT additionally on numerous structures dispersed between both left and right sides of the equator between frontal (right sub-par) and parietal (right back) flaps and left frontal. The part of the amygdala is vague for prosody. (note: part of amygdala for other full of feeling sounds is clear). Handling enthusiastic music that outcomes in "shudders down the spine" enacts ventral striatum, amydgala and orbitofronal cortex (order of this passionate reaction is questionable). The neural premise of dread is all around depicted (see next slide). Adolphs, 2002

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Associative Learning (Fear Response) Before Training – a transient situating reaction is prompted to the sound Training – sound is combined with the stun After Training – position in the case actuates solidifying when the sound is available. What are the neural systems related with dread… ? From: Squire et al., 2003

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, 1995) Fear Conditioning (LeDoux, 1995) From: Squire et al., 2003

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Amygdala & Stress Response From: Bear et al., 2007

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Amygdala & Enhancement of Memory From: Bear et al., 2007

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Hippocampus & Stress Response Hippocampus inhibitorily affects CRF discharge. As the hippoca