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Extension OF PULP PRODUCTION IN THE THIRD WORLD William Ladrach Zobel Forestry Associates, Inc. zfaforestry.com Allegheny SAF Meeting Roanoke, West Virginia February 16-18 2010

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WOOD FURNISH FOR PULP MILLS Outside of North America and Eurasia, the considerable larger part of mash factories utilize estate wood as outfit. Basic ranch species utilized for mash: Eucalyptus grandis, E. urophylla, E. globulus Clonal crossovers of Urograndis Acacia mangium, A. crassicarpa Pinus radiata, P. taeda, P. caribaea

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According to PriceWaterhouse Coopers, the world normal profit for capital utilized (ROCE) in woods grounds was 4.8% in 2007. In Latin America, modern woodland lands keep on generating pay with ROCE's of 9.3% in 2006 and 7.8% in 2007, as indicated by FAO.

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The US mash and paper industry is to a great extent made out of generally held organizations recorded on the share trading system and must contend with different areas (hardware, vitality, transportation, pharmaceuticals, and so forth.) for speculators' dollars.

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The US mash & paper industry has not been creating good profits for capital utilized in timberlands and has to a great extent stripped itself of its backwoods lands, offering them to timber venture administration associations (TIMO), land speculation trusts (REIT) and to a lesser degree to constrained obligation organizations (LLC) and restricted associations (LP). Remarkable special cases: Weyerhaeuser, (firmly held open organization), Simpson Timber (exclusive)

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WOOD PULPS & THEIR USES Kraft mash : wood free mash or free sheet (all lignin expelled), utilized for fine papers, bundling Semi-synthetic mash : some lignin evacuated, utilized as layered medium Dissolving (sulfite) mash , utilized for acetic acid derivation, film, rayon Goundwood mash (GW) wood is ground off of logs, utilized for newsprint Pressure groundwood mash (PGW) logs ground under weight & steam, utilized for newsprint Thermo-mechanical mash (TMP) chips ground under weight and superheated steam, utilized for newsprint, fiber board (hardboard, MDF) Chemi-thermo-mechanical mash (CTMP), utilized like TMP (uses chips, superheated steam & some scathing pop)

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New mash processes in Third World nations: Are overwhelmingly kraft factories, delivering wood free (lignin free) pulps. Deliver short fiber without chlorine dyed pulps from tropical manor trees A couple create long fiber unbleached pulps in calm areas utilizing estate pines

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BRAZIL Existing mash limit by state 2009

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BRAZIL New and arranged mash factories 1000 mt Murcuri

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BRAZIL ADVANTAGES Fast-developing tree species High level of woodland research to enhance tree development and wellbeing Arable land accessible for more ranches at moderately minimal effort Trained & inspired work constrain Favorable wood transport frameworks

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BRAZIL ADVANTAGES University specialized & proficient bolster Close participation among organizations, government, colleges Strong economy National Bank for Social and Economic Development (BNDES) supplies financing for mechanical improvement

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BRAZIL According to a report by Jakko Pöyry Oy and BRACELPA, the normal yield of Brazilian modern pulpwood ranches is: 40 m³/ha/year (8 ropes/a/yr) for eucalypts on a 7-year revolution (twofold the development in 1970) 30 m³/ha/year (6 ropes/a/yr) for pines on a 15-year turn. (The trees are measured over bark)

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BRAZIL To stay aware of developing requests for wood items around the world, Brazil's present tree ranch zone of 5.6 million ha (13.8 million sections of land) should be expanded to 12.8 million ha (31.6 million sections of land) amid the following 20 years for Brazil to keep up its relative piece of the overall industry in wood items deals.

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Harvesters create 6 m (20') debarked wood, more than 100 trees/hr, 3 shifts/day, 6 days/week

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BRAZIL WOOD TRANSPORT Pine transport in Parana State (south)

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Unloading tri-prepare at Aracruz process, Espiritu Santo

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BRAZIL 2009 Fibria was shaped by the merger of Votarantim Celulose e Papel and Aracruz Celulose Combined yearly mash generation limit is more than 6 million tons, Fibria claims more than 1.3 million hectares of backwoods land

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CHILE Region 8 Region 9 Region 10 Chilo é Island

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CHILE 2008 2.14 million ha of tree ranches 1.5 million ha of radiata pine manors 380,000 ha of eucalypt estates 70% of the timberland items are sent out, speak to 13% of national fares and achieved US$5 billion in 2007, incorporating US$1.6 billion in mash and paper. Wood and paper items fares are second just to copper.

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CHILE Celulosa Arauco y Constitución (Arauco) has a joined yearly mash limit of 2.2 million metric tons from its factories, four in Chile and one in Argentina. It possesses a sum of 850,000 ha of tree ranches in Chile, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Arauco's biggest mash plant is at Bío-Bío (Region 8), 858,000 tons of faded long fiber mash every year.

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CHILE Advantages Trained & roused work compel University specialized & proficient bolster Strong economy

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CHILE Challenges Lands in Regions 8, 9, 10 for radiata pine are possessed and the potential for development is restricted. Chiloé island requires slower-developing Douglas-fir and frosty strong N. Am. Pines Topography is moving to soak, requires specific reaping hardware Chile has great woodland fire associations, yet radiata pine is exceptionally defenseless to flame harm. Truck pull limit is constrained by geography, streets.

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CHILE Specialized reaper tilts for working on slants

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CHILE Radiata pine, 22 years of age, 100' tall trees

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URUGUAYNew factories 1000 mt

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URUGUAY Plantations: Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus dunnii Plantations are in upper east and in southwest

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URUGUAY Advantages Fast-developing tree species Arable land accessible for more estates Wood accessible from Argentina crosswise over Uruguay River connect at Concordia, through MERCOSUR assentions. NE ranches are neighboring Brazil, wood could move to Rio Grande do Sul to new mash plants.

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URUGUAY Challenges Road framework fair. Poor transport from NE crosswise over Rio Negro & Lago de Rincon to Montevideo in South. Infringement of manors on cows lands. Solid hostility by Argentina to development of Uruguayan factories on Uruguay River

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SOUTH AFRICA National mash limit 2.3 million mtyp Sappi processes more than 1 million mtyp (ground wood & kraft mash) at Ngodwana (Transvaal Prov.), Mondi 720,000 mtpy kraft process at Richards Bay (Natal Prov.) 1.5 million ha of ranches, fundamentally Pinus patula, P. elliottii, P. radiata, Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mearnsii . Most manors are in East (Transvaal Prov.), Southeast (Natal Prov.) and South (Eastern Cape).

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SOUTH AFRICA Sappi possesses 464,000 ha of manors in addition to 75,000 ha in neighboring Swaziland. Mondi has 430.000 ha in estates. 200,000 ha of new ranches are arranged with extra 565,000 tons mash limit. The limited gage railroad is utilized for wood transport, considering a bigger wood acquisition territory than with just trucks.

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SOUTH AFRICA Wood conveyed to Sappi process at Ngodwana by rail

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SOUTH AFRICA Mondi and Sappi are growing ranches into Swaziland and perhaps into Mozambique toward the North. Mozambique has arrangements to set up to seven million hectares of tree manors. The expansion in mash limit in Southern Africa will rely on upon expanding the tree manor region.

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INDONESIA Installed mash limit is 5.3 million mtyp Plantations are fundamentally Acacia mangium Major factories are in Sumatra, one in Borneo Mill startup has been with common blended hardwoods as woodlands are cleared, then the destinations planted with acacias.

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INDONESIA Challenges Financial troubles, defilement (Kalimanis Group), national banks holding US$13 billion obligation on fizzled ranger service/mash ventures advanced with budgetary motivating forces Social enmity to industry takeover and clearing of grounds Resistance by earthy person to land clearing and transformation to manors

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INDONESIA Challenges Lack of prepared labor Lack of expert & specialized work force Lack of college specialized bolster Lack of successful collaboration among organizations, colleges, government Lack of compelling timberland examine Lack of good transport frameworks

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INDONESIA Challenges Effective % ranch region in Timber Estates (HTI) is low because of: Hilly land, natural soils (histosols), swamps Difficulties of adjusting motorized collecting frameworks to territory Growth rate for acacia ranches is generally low, 20 m 3/ha/yr (4 ropes/a/yr)

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INDONESIA Felling short wood with cutting tools, hand debarking, bear transport of short wood to the street

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INDONESIA Improperly stacked truck, no fasteners on load. Work changing wood remaining on top of trucks

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INDONESIA Bi-prepare 12' wide, 105 ton GVW on organization street in Sumatra

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INDONESIA GVW 105 tons 11 hub bi-prepare in Sumatra Detail of 5 th wheel association

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CHINA Much of the extra world mash limit is gone for deals to China. Approx. five million tons of new mash limit is arranged or under development in China. Government arrangements to build up 5.8 million ha