Excrement, Compost and Fertilizer

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Examinations of Excrement, Manure, and Business Composts. by Clain Jones, Augmentation Soil Ripeness Expert clainj@montana.edu (406) 994-6076. Excrement, Manure and Compost. Every one of the 3 materials give crops N, P, and K, so why pick one over the other?

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Correlations of Manure, Compost, and Commercial Fertilizers by Clain Jones, Extension Soil Fertility Specialist clainj@montana.edu (406) 994-6076

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Manure, Compost and Fertilizer All 3 materials furnish crops with N, P, and K, so why pick one over the other? Contrasts in supplement content Effects on plant yield, life and wellbeing Effects on soil tilth Transportation, application and cost contrasts

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Commercial composts : AA, A, UAN, UR (Urea) MAP, DAP and so forth. Compost: No clarification required!! Compost : Decomposed/balanced out natural matter Compost cases include: Food Processing Residuals — compostable material staying after organic product, vegetables, grains, nuts, and meat are prepared for utilization. Fertilizer and Agricultural By-Products — begin at sustain parcels, on the homestead, and in nurseries. Expansive amounts of excrements as well as plant buildups are created and can represent a serious transfer issue. Ranger service and Forest Product Residuals — incorporates bark and sawdust, and fiber fines, deposit and biosolids created by the papermaking procedure. Biosolids, or Sewage Sludge — the strong material created by the organic treatment of sewage at a wastewater treatment plant. Notwithstanding being treated the soil, sewage slime can be reused for helpful use by direct application to arrive as a compost. Leaves, Brush and Yard Trimmings (Yard Waste) — normally comprises of leaves, brush, and grass clippings basic to urban territories. Source The Composting Council Research and Education Foundation (CCREF)

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Commercial Fertilizers Advantages Precise measure of N, P, K Available in a scope of supplement levels (particularly when mixed) to give the maker what is required for the harvest Uniform material for simplicity of transport and application Known properties of the material with unsurprising impact on products Widely accessible

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Commercial Fertilizers Disadvantages Costs shift and change amid the year, and are as of now at record highs Often have higher shot for supplement overflow or draining, on account of high solvency

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Manures Advantages Often free (aside from transport/application) Adds natural matter (OM) to the dirt which enhances structure, expands water holding limit, builds CEC and diminishes disintegration Provides both accessible and 'moderate discharge' N, P, K and small scale supplements to crops

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Manures Disadvantages Nutrients can be effortlessly filtered through the dirt profile or volatilized if left at first glance Nutrient substance is very factor May present human pathogenic microorganisms, for example, fecal coliform or E.coli May present weed seeds Weight and greater part of transporting and applying wet excrements to fields

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How is Manure Typically Handled? Excrement is regularly surface connected, consolidated or infused into the dirt without handling, and connected at greatest permissible amounts to abstain from building broad storerooms . These rates shift generally because of compost sorts, soil sort and strategy for application… .Contact the NRCS for help with figuring fertilizer application rates. Montana NRCS State Office (406) 587-6813 Online Manure Nutrient Calculator http://www.agry.purdue.edu/mmp/webcalc/nutAvail.asp

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Compost Advantages Lower water content: more prominent aggregate convergence of supplements than fertilizer on wet premise Adds OM that discharges supplements gradually High OM content enhances soil structure, builds CEC and water holding limit Greater water holding limit may diminish water system needs and lessen pumping costs Beneficial microorganisms in manure increment supplement cycling and can smother soil and foliar pathogens

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Advantages to Compost, Cont'd Few to no pathogens & weed seeds because of the warmth produced amid disintegration Drier than excrements with a decreased volume of 50-75%, making it less demanding to transport and apply Possible wellspring of wage for different markets and applications Market cases: Compost can be utilized by home nursery workers, mine recovery destinations, as seed starter and preparing blends for nurseries , as a dirt correction for finishing.

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Compost Disadvantages Making fertilizer includes exorbitant gear, arranging, checking and time to create Nutrient improved leachate must be controlled to anticipate spillover or ground water sullying May require uncommon licenses relying upon amount delivered and if offering manure Will probably be more expensive per lb of accessible supplement than either manure or excrement

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Making Compost

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Typical Total Nutrients in Fertilizer (Modified from Havlin et al., 1999)

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Typical Total Nutrients for Manure

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Typical Nutrients in Compost Nutrient focuses in completed manure will shift contingent upon sort of fertilizer, plant buildup or bio-solids utilized.

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Nutrient Availability is Different for each Source

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Comparing Yields Using Fertilizer versus Compost Annual manure rates (lb/A) 33-30-30 (1930-1967), and 60-30-30 (1968-2000). Compost connected each 4 th year at rates of 120 lb/A (1930-1967) and 240 lb/A (1968-2000).

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0 11 22 33 44 Compost rate (t/air conditioning ) Yield Response to Compost 50 bu 25 bu A dryland wheat examine in northern Utah. Information source: Koenig et al. (2003)

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Utah Study on the Effects of Compost and Winter Wheat Yield Conclusions from the review: In wet years, supplement accessibility had more prominent impact on yield In dry years, the non-supplement impacts of manure (expanded water holding limit, bring down mass thickness, expanded soil warming and more noteworthy air circulation) had more prominent impact on yield

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Compost Costs and Value * Compost normal N,P,K content: 1%, 0.72%, 2.7% separately

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Fertilizer versus Compost Costs Only sporadically, however likely will require supplemental manure Each year Bottom line, costs for each will differ, contingent upon the maker's cultivating objectives and soil supplement status.

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Summary Decisions on compost versus compost versus compost rely on upon: Having amounts or simple access to those materials. Looking at expenses of manure versus excrement versus compost and their related application costs. Giving the perfect measure of N, P, and K for your harvest. Your decision on whether you need to fabricate soil O.M. or, on the other hand not.

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Resources… Rick Fasching, agronomist, NRCS, (406) 587-6837 richard.fasching@mt.usda.gov Nutrient Management Self-Study Course (1-15), MSU Ag Extension productions: http://www.montana.edu/wwwpb/bars/mt4449.html Fertilizer Guidelines for Montana Crops EB 161, MSU Extension, Free. Contact Extension Publications (406) 994-3273 for requesting data or online at: http://www.montana.edu/wwwpb/bars/eb161.html Gallatin Co. Augmentation Agent, Ron Carlstrom (406) 582-3280 MSU's Soil Fertility site: http://landresources.montana.edu/soilfertility

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Resources cont'd Online Crop Fertilizer Recommendation Calculator http://www.agry.purdue.edu/mmp/webcalc/fertRec.asp Online Manure Nutrient Calculator http://www.agry.purdue.edu/mmp/webcalc/nutAvail.asp Compost for Manure Management a 77-page BioCycle report that spotlights on transforming domesticated animals squander into a profitable soil correction. $39.00 BioCycle/JG Press. www.jgpress.com Troy Smith proprietor/administrator of Earth Systems Organic Compost (406) 287-3870 Manhattan, MT Field Guide to On-Farm Composting, 1999 (NRAES–114, partner to the On-Farm Composting Handbook from NRAES (National Resource Agriculture & Engineering Service), $14.00. www.nraes.org

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