Essentials of Accounting for Governmental and Not-revenue driven Organizations

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Review of Chapter 13. Inspecting GNP organizationsAudit ReportsThe Single Audit ActTax issues for philanthropic organizationsReporting Service Efforts and Accomplishments (SEA Measures). Wellspring of Auditing Standards. AICPA

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Fundamentals of Accounting for Governmental and Not-revenue driven Organizations Chapter 13: Auditing; Tax-Exempt Organizations; And Performance Evaluation

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Overview of Chapter 13 Auditing GNP associations Audit Reports The Single Audit Act Tax issues for charitable associations Reporting Service Efforts and Accomplishments (SEA Measures)

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Source of Auditing Standards AICPA – Statements of Auditing Standards (GAAS) GAO – Government Auditing Standards (GAGAS) AICPA Audit and Accounting Guides Audits of State and Local Governments Not-revenue driven Organizations

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Government Auditing Standards , issued by the GAO, join AICPA reviewing benchmarks and give augmentations that are vital because of the one of a kind sort of open elements The Yellow Book United States Government Accountability Office Government Auditing Standards

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Differences in Public Sector Audits Auditor learning of government bookkeeping and examining Public accessibility of review reports Written assessments of inner controls Distribution of review reports and accessibility of working papers to elected specialists

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Types of Engagements Financial Audits Provide sensible affirmation that money related explanations are introduced reasonably in every single material regard and consent to GAAP. Validation Engagements Include Reporting on: Internal controls Compliance with laws and directions Prospective monetary data Costs under contracts

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Types of Engagements (cont'd) Performance Audits Economy and proficiency reviews - include parts of suitable procurement, utilize, and shielding of assets Program reviews - survey how much mission goals have been accomplished while sticking to pertinent laws and directions Nonaudit Services Providing or clarifying data Providing counsel or help to administration

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Financial Statement Audits Auditors should first decide a level of materiality Financial proclamation reviews include examination of exchanges on a test premise, shaping judgments about inward controls and consistence with laws and directions, and rendering a feeling about whether the budgetary explanations are arranged reasonably as per GAAP.

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Because of the different levels of revealing (far reaching, support sort, and individual reserve) the examiner must decide a level of materiality for each. A different materiality assessment is made for: Governmental exercises Business-sort exercises Each real store Aggregate segment units The total of all outstanding asset data Opinion Units

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One impact of giving an account of sentiment units is that some feeling units may get inadequate suppositions while others get adjusted conclusions. For instance: inability to report framework resources could bring about an unfavorable conclusion with respect to the administrative exercises (extensive proclamations) and an inadequate feeling for all other segment units. Sentiment units (cont'd)

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The examiner is required to get ready up to five reports: A report containing a supposition on the monetary articulations. A report talking about the assessment and testing of inward control and consistence with laws and directions . A report talking about huge inadequacies in inward controls. A report depicting cases of misrepresentation, unlawful acts, or other material resistance. A report containing the perspectives of capable authorities of the inspected association with respect to any revealed noteworthy inadequacies.

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Types of Audit Opinions on Overall Statements Unqualified - Statements have all the earmarks of being in similarity with GAAP - no "uncertainties, ands, or however" special case kind of qualifying dialect. Qualified - Largely in congruity with GAAP aside from some predefined item(s). Unfavorable - Not as per GAAP. Disclaimer - Not ready to express a supposition, as a rule since inspector was blocked from doing some important strategy .

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Purpose of Single Audit Act Before 1984, State and neighborhood governments and Not-for-benefits accepting money related guide from a few distinctive elected organizations, had numerous reviews. The underlying Single Audit Act looked to force one arrangement of stringent review rules so that just a single review would need to be directed to fulfill different grantor offices.

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Single Audit: Development The underlying Single Audit Acts in OMB booklets A-128 and A-133 needed a solitary review if government money related help was over $100,000. In 1996 A-133 was overhauled and supplanted A-128 . The present edge for a solitary review is government budgetary help EXPENDITURES of over $500,000. On the off chance that government help > $500,000 yet is all from one office, a program review might be utilized rather than a solitary review.

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Supervision of Single Audits Oversight office Agency with biggest stipends get review reports Cognizant office Entities with $50 at least million of government honors are checked by an insightful office - office with biggest allows ordinarily chose Compliance supplement - incorporates any unique rules for specific awards

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Risk-based Audit Process Must consider impact of go through elements and subrecipients Must recognize MAJOR projects Group programs utilizing hazard based approach Type A - bigger projects Type B - littler projects and okay expansive projects Type A projects get nearer evaluating than Type B's

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Selecting Programs for Audit Generally, the examiner is required to express a supposition on consistence on real projects which must mean half of the elected assets consumed by the inspected association However, in the event that the examined association is resolved to be "okay", the rate is brought down to 25%

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The Sarbanes-Oxley Act Signed into law in 2002 in light of outrages in the business division Intended to enhance corporate administration and farthest point the administrations bookkeeping firms may give to their review customers.

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The Sarbanes-Oxley Act cont'd While act just applies to organizations documenting with the SEC, it has changed the way open bookkeeping shapes identify with every one of their customers, including legislative and NFP. The Act has affected administering sheets and numerous NFP Boards have started to model themselves on corporate administration "best practices" started by SOx

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Governmental Auditing Standards GAO norms for autonomy as of now preclude inspectors from performing numerous non-review administrations. Like administrative bookkeeping, legislative inspecting takes after an exceptional arrangement of rules built up by the GAO that oblige reviewers to assess and give an account of the arrangement of inner controls and consistence with laws and directions.

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Sarbanes-Oxley Act has changed the world therefore of increased open mindfulness for the significance of responsibility and freedom, different arrangements of the SOx Act are by and large deliberately received by NFP associations. Weight to receive these practices has originated from subsidizing establishments that have reported that SOx consistence will be a consider the granting of gifts.

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Tax-Exempt Organizations Most not-for-profits document IRS frame 1023 Application for Recognition of Exemption to get great duty treatment for benefactors Local law oversees exclusions from deals assessment and property charge. Most NFPs should even now document an IRS Form 990 data return if net receipts are over $25,000. NFPs with over $1000 of random business wage document Form 990-T. Different reports might be documented with the state.

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Tax Code: Types of charities The expense code indicates a few unique classes of philanthropic associations by reason. The most well-known are § 501(c)(3) associations

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§ 501(c)3 Organizations Include religious, altruistic, logical, scholarly, instructive, novice sports associations, organizations for forestall of mercilessness to youngsters or creatures. Requires that no profits be paid and no significant political movement. 501(c)(3's) status permits givers to take a magnanimous reasoning on their U.S. government form for gifts.

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Form 990 Information Return Requires money related explanation data like that required by GAAP. Additionally uncovers data about pay of most generously compensated representatives and temporary workers . Citizen Bill of Rights 2 (1996) requires that 990s must be made accessible to the individuals who ask for it - normally presented on a site. Additionally makes inquiries to ensure the association is as yet working as per its absolved mission.

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Tax-excluded associations are required to pay impose (at the corporate rate) on pay created from an exchange or business irrelevant to the element's assessment absolved purposes The reason for the duty is to keep charities from having an "unreasonable" expense advantage over business ventures with contending products and enterprises Unrelated Business Income Tax

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Unrelated Business Income Tax Even inconsequential business wage will be excluded from salary charge if Not carried on frequently Run by volunteers Involves offers of gave things Operated for comfort of workers and supporters.

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Income Exempt from UBIT Some pay is given particular exclusion: Royalties, profits, intrigue and annuities Research incomes Income from open excitement at a reasonable Revenues from work, horticulture, or business public expos Income from rental or trade of participation records

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Performance Evaluation - Ratios To think about elements of differing size, it is helpful to figure budgetary proportions Not-revenue driven Ratios Governmental Ratios

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Not-revenue driven Ratios A. Program Expense Ratio: Program Service Expenses Total Expenses What extent of every dollar is utilized on projects? B. Gathering pledges Efficiency: Fundraising Expenses Contribution Revenue How much does it cost to raise a dollar of commitments?

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Not-revenue driven R

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