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Dynamic Programming: Alter Separation. Plot. DNA Grouping Correlation: First Examples of overcoming adversity Change Issue Manhattan Traveler Issue Longest Ways in Charts Succession Arrangement Alter Remove Longest Regular Subsequence Issue Dab Networks. DNA Arrangement Correlation: First Example of overcoming adversity .

Dynamic Programming: Edit Distance

Outline DNA Sequence Comparison: First Success Stories Change Problem Manhattan Tourist Problem Longest Paths in Graphs Sequence Alignment Edit Distance Longest Common Subsequence Problem Dot Matrices

DNA Sequence Comparison: First Success Story Finding grouping similitudes with qualities of known capacity is a typical way to deal with gather a recently sequenced quality's capacity In 1984 Russell Doolittle and associates discovered likenesses between tumor creating quality and ordinary development figure (PDGF) quality

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a perpetual and oftentimes lethal hereditary infection of the body's bodily fluid organs (anomalous abnormal state of bodily fluid in organs). CF essentially influences the respiratory frameworks in kids. Bodily fluid is a foul material that coats numerous epithelial surfaces and is discharged into liquids, for example, salivation Cystic Fibrosis

In mid 1980s scientists conjectured that CF is an autosomal passive issue created by transformations in a quality that stayed obscure till 1989 Heterozygous bearers are asymptomatic Must be homozygously latent in this quality so as to be determined to have CF Cystic Fibrosis: Inheritance

Cystic Fibrosis: Finding the Gene

Finding Similarities between the Cystic Fibrosis Gene and ATP restricting proteins ATP restricting proteins are available on cell layer and go about as transport direct In 1989 scholars discovered comparability between the cystic fibrosis quality and ATP restricting proteins A conceivable capacity for cystic fibrosis quality, given the way that CF includes sweet emission with unusually high sodium level

Cystic Fibrosis: Mutation Analysis If a high % of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have a specific change in the quality and the typical patients don't, then that could be a pointer of a change that is identified with CF A specific change was found in 70% of CF patients, persuading proof that it is a dominating hereditary diagnostics marker for CF

Cystic Fibrosis and CFTR Gene :

Cystic Fibrosis and the CFTR Protein CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator) protein is acting in the cell film of epithelial cells that emit bodily fluid These cells line the aviation routes of the nose, lungs, the stomach divider, and so forth

Mechanism of Cystic Fibrosis The CFTR protein (1480 amino acids) controls a chloride particle channel Adjusts the "wateriness" of liquids emitted by the phone Those with cystic fibrosis are missing one single amino corrosive in their CFTR Mucus winds up being too thick, influencing numerous organs

Bring in the Bioinformaticians Gene similitudes between two qualities with known and obscure capacity ready researcher to a few potential outcomes Computing a closeness score between two qualities tells how likely it is that they have comparative capacities Dynamic writing computer programs is a procedure for uncovering likenesses between qualities The Change Problem is a decent issue to present the possibility of element programming

The Change Problem Goal : Convert some measure of cash M into given categories, utilizing the least conceivable number of coins Input : A measure of cash M , and a variety of d groups c = ( c 1 , c 2 , … , c d ), in a diminishing request of significant worth ( c 1 > c 2 > … > c d ) Output : A rundown of d whole numbers i 1 , i 2 , … , i d to such an extent that c 1 i 1 + c 2 i 2 + … + c d i d = M and i 1 + i 2 + … + i d is insignificant

Value 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Min # of coins 1 Change Problem: Example Given the divisions 1, 3, and 5, what is the base number of coins expected to roll out improvement for a given esteem? Just a single coin is expected to roll out improvement for the qualities 1, 3, and 5

Change Problem: Example (cont " d) Given the sections 1, 3, and 5, what is the base number of coins expected to roll out improvement for a given esteem? Esteem 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Min # of coins 1 2 1 2 1 2 However, two coins are expected to roll out improvement for the qualities 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10.

Change Problem: Example (cont " d) Given the groups 1, 3, and 5, what is the base number of coins expected to roll out improvement for a given esteem? Esteem 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Min # of coins 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 3 2 Lastly, three coins are expected to roll out improvement for the qualities 7 and 9

minNumCoins(M-1) + 1 minNumCoins(M-3) + 1 minNumCoins(M-5) + 1 min of minNumCoins(M) = Change Problem: Recurrence This illustration is communicated by the accompanying repeat connection:

minNumCoins(M-c 1 ) + 1 minNumCoins(M-c 2 ) + 1 … minNumCoins(M-c d ) + 1 min of minNumCoins(M) = Change Problem: Recurrence (cont " d) Given the categories c : c 1 , c 2 , … , c d , the repeat connection is:

Change Problem: A Recursive Algorithm RecursiveChange ( M , c , d ) if M = 0 return 0 bestNumCoins endlessness for i 1 to d if M ≥ c i numCoins RecursiveChange ( M – c i , c , d ) if numCoins + 1 < bestNumCoins numCoins + 1 return bestNumCoins

RecursiveChange Is Not Efficient It recalculates the ideal coin blend for a given measure of cash over and over i.e., M = 77, c = (1,3,7): Optimal coin combo for 70 pennies is registered 9 times!

The RecursiveChange Tree 77 76 74 70 75 73 69 73 71 67 69 67 63 74 72 68 66 62 70 68 64 68 66 62 60 56 72 70 66 72 70 66 64 60 66 64 60 . . . . . . 70

We Can Do Better We're re-processing values in our calculation more than once Save consequences of every calculation for 0 to M This way, we can do a reference call to discover an as of now registered esteem, rather than re-figuring each time Running time M * d , where M is the estimation of cash and d is the quantity of categories

The Change Problem: Dynamic Programming DPChange( M , c , d ) bestNumCoins 0 0 for m 1 to M bestNumCoins m endlessness for i 1 to d if m ≥ c i if bestNumCoins m – c i + 1 < bestNumCoins m bestNumCoins m bestNumCoins m – c i + 1 return bestNumCoins M

DPChange: Example 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 1 2 3 2 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 0 1 2 1 2 3 2 1 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 1 2 3 2 1 2 0 1 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 0 1 2 1 2 c = (1,3,7) M = 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 1 2 3

Manhattan Tourist Problem (MTP) Imagine looking for a way (from source to sink) to travel (just eastbound and southward) with the most number of attractions ( * ) in the Manhattan matrix Source * Sink

Manhattan Tourist Problem (MTP) Imagine looking for a way (from source to sink) to travel (just eastbound and southward) with the most number of attractions ( * ) in the Manhattan framework Source * Sink

Manhattan Tourist Problem: Formulation Goal : Find the longest way in a weighted network. Input : A weighted matrix G with two unmistakable vertices, one named " source " and the other marked " sink " Output : A longest way in G from " source " to " sink "

MTP: An Example 0 1 2 3 4 j arrange source 3 2 4 0 3 5 9 0 1 0 4 3 2 3 2 4 13 1 6 5 4 2 0 7 3 4 15 19 2 i facilitate 4 5 2 4 1 0 2 3 20 3 8 5 6 5 2 sink 1 3 2 23 4

MTP: Greedy Algorithm Is Not Optimal 1 2 5 source 3 10 5 2 5 1 3 5 3 1 4 2 3 promising begin, however prompts to terrible decisions! 5 0 2 0 22 0 sink 18

MTP: Simple Recursive Program MT ( n,m ) if n=0 or m=0 return MT(n,m) x MT(n-1,m)+ length of the edge from (n-1,m) to (n,m) y MT(n,m-1)+ length of the edge from (n,m-1) to (n,m) return max{x,y}

MTP: Simple Recursive Program MT ( n,m ) x MT(n-1,m)+ length of the edge from (n-1,m) to (n,m) y MT(n,m-1)+ length of the edge from (n,m-1) to (n,m) return min{x,y} What's the matter with this approach?

MTP: Dynamic Programming j 0 1 source 1 0 1 S 0,1 = 1 i 5 1 5 S 1,0 = 5 Calculate ideal way score for every vertex in the diagram Each vertex's score is the greatest of the earlier vertices score in addition to the heaviness of the particular edge in the middle of

MTP: Dynamic Programming (cont " d) j 0 1 2 source 1 2 0 1 3 S 0,2 = 3 i 5 3 - 5 1 5 4 S 1,1 = 4 3 2 8 S 2,0 = 8

MTP: Dynamic Programming (cont " d) j 0 1 2 3 source 1 2 5 0 1 3 8 S 3,0 = 8 i 5 3 10 - 5 1 5 4 13 S 1,2 = 13 5 3 - 5 2 8 9 S 2,1 = 9 0 3 8 S 3,0 = 8

MTP: Dynamic Programming (cont " d) j 0 1 2 3 source 1 2 5 0 1 3 8 i 5 3 10 - 5 - 5 1 - 5 1 5 4 13 8 S 1,3 = 8 5 3 - 3 - 5 2 8 9 12 S 2,2 = 12 0 3 8 9 S 3,1 = 9 covetous alg. fizzles!

MTP: Dynamic Programming (cont " d) j 0 1 2 3 source 1 2 5 0 1 3 8 i 5 3 10 - 5 - 5 1 - 5 1 5 4 13 8 5 3 - 3 2 3 - 5 2 8 9 12 15 S 2,3 = 15 0 - 5 0 3 8 9 S 3,2 = 9

MTP: Dynamic Programming (cont " d) j 0 1 2 3 source 1 2 5 0 1 3 8 Done! i 5 3 10 - 5 - 5 1 - 5 1 5 4 13 8 (demonstrating every single back-follow) 5 3 - 3 2 3 - 5 2 8 9 12 15 0 - 5 1 0 3 8 9 16 S 3,3 = 16

s i-1, j + weight of the edge between ( i-1, j ) and ( i, j ) s i, j-1 + weight of the edge between ( i, j-1 ) and ( i, j ) max s i, j = MTP: Recurrence Computing the score for a point (i,j) by the repeat connection: The running time is n x m for a n by m lattice ( n = # of lines, m = # of sections)

A 2 A 3 A 1 B s A1 + weight of the edge (A 1 , B) s A2 + weight of the edge (A 2 , B) s A3 + weight of the edge (A 3 , B) max of s B = Manhattan Is Not A Perfect Grid What about diagonals? The score at point B is given by:

max of s y + weight of vertex ( y , x ) where y є Predecessors( x) s x = Manhattan Is Not A Perfect Grid (con

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