DNA and Chromosome Structure

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Chromosomal Structure of the Genetic Material. . The Essential Structure of DNA. . The Replication Challenge. Size of a normal human chromosome130 million bpRate of replication~ 50 bp per secFidelity of replication. . Replication of the Genetic Material. . Little chromosomes utilize a solitary inception.

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Slide 1

DNA and Chromosome Structure

Slide 2

Chromosomal Structure of the Genetic Material

Slide 3

The Essential Structure of DNA

Slide 4

The Replication Challenge Size of a normal human chromosome 130 million bp Rate of replication ~ 50 bp per sec Fidelity of replication

Slide 5

Replication of the Genetic Material Small chromosomes utilize a solitary root Replication of vast chromosomes requires various sources

Slide 6

The Mammalian DNA Replication Apparatus

Slide 7

The Importance of Molecular Cloning

Slide 8

Role of Recombinant DNA Analysis in the Study of Gene Structure/Function The substance of the issue: Human genome = 3 x 10 9 bp The b - globin quality = 3 x 10 3 bp Cloning of qualities takes care of this issue and permits an investigation of capacity and the reason for change

Slide 9

Two Critical Components for Cloning Recombinant DNA Utility of confinement compounds for exact control of DNA particles Use of DNA vectors that can reproduce and furthermore acknowledge remote DNA grouping

Slide 10

Methods of Recombinant DNA Analysis

Slide 11

Methods of Recombinant DNA Analysis

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Methods of Recombinant DNA Analysis

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Requirements for Cloning Recombinant DNA The conditions under which the number of inhabitants in recombinant DNAs is blended with a populace of beneficiary cells must support the presentation of a solitary recombinant atom into a beneficiary cell. This outcomes in the partition of every recombinant from all the others Each beneficiary cell must be isolated from all the others in the populace to allow segregation of a clone of cells or infections containing a one of a kind recombinant Cells or infections that get recombinant DNAs must be discernable from those that don't so they can be chosen or recognized by screening Cells that get the fancied recombinant must be discernable by screening or determination from those that contain other recombinant DNA particles

Slide 14

Methods of Recombinant DNA Analysis

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Generation and Use of Recombinant DNA Libraries Sequence libraries Genomic or cDNA successions that speak to every single conceivable arrangement from the source Expression libraries Library built in a particular vector that permits articulation of the embed grouping to produce protein

Slide 16

Isolation of a Gene and Gene Structure

Slide 17

Isolation of a Gene

Slide 18

Discontinuous Nature of an Eukaryotic Gene

Slide 19

Structure of a Typical Eukaryotic Gene – the b - Globin Gene

Slide 20

Complexity of Gene Organization in Metazoans The b - globin locus

Slide 21

Unequal Crossing Over as a Mechanism for Gene Duplication and Gene Loss

Slide 22

The Impact of the Complexity of Gene Structure on Gene Expression

Slide 23

Gene Expression

Slide 24

The Complexity of Gene Expression

Slide 25

Gene Expression Requires Splicing of Primary Transcripts

Slide 26

Conservation of Sequences at Splice Sites

Slide 27

Splicing Involves the Assembly of a Multi-Component Complex

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Formation of the mRNA 3' Terminus Requires Specific Cleavage

Slide 29

Codon Recognition During Protein Synthesis Recognition of the starting AUG

Slide 30

Codon Recognition During Protein Synthesis

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Codon Recognition During Protein Synthesis

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Ribosome-Based Mechanism for Translation

Slide 33

Transcription

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Elements of Transcriptional Control Cis-acting administrative successions Trans-acting administrative proteins

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Transcriptional Control Sequences

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Transcription Involves the Assembly of a Multi-Component Complex

Slide 37

Regulation of Gene Expression

Slide 38

Measuring Gene Expression - Recognizing the Complexity

Slide 39

Regulation of Transcription Control of interpretation start (significant type of control) Control of interpretation extension Role of untimely end

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Mechanisms Regulating Transcription Initiation Control of union of translation elements Control of DNA restricting movement of the variable Control of transcriptional capacity of the element

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Regulation of Transcription The b - Globin Gene Regulatory Sequence Transcription

Slide 42

Thalassemia Mutations That Alter Transcription Regulation

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Regulation of Transcription – Examples from the Myc Gene

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Alterations in Transcriptional Control in Disease Activation of the c-myc quality by retrovirus intervened promoter addition

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Alterations in Transcriptional Control in Disease Activation of the c-myc quality by modification in B cell lymphomas

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Alterations in Transcriptional Control in Disease Creation of a chimeric interpretation consider AML

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Post-Transcriptional Gene Control Mechanisms

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Post-Transcriptional Gene Control Mechanisms

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Alteration of Post-Transcriptional Control Events

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Splice Site Mutations in Thalassemia

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Splice Site Mutations in Thalassemia

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Thalassemia Mutations That Affect Polyadenylation AAUAAA Normal + AACAAA b

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Nucleic Acid Hybridization

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Hybridization of Complementary DNA Sequences Allows Detection of Specific DNAs

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