Dietary Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Compete in Producing Tissue Compositions And Tissue Responses

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Dietary Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Compete in Producing Tissue Compositions And Tissue Responses An investigate of conundrums in current counsel on dietary lipids. Advance in Lipid Research (2008) 47: 77–106. Arranging essential aversion of coronary ailment. Current Atherosclerosis Reports (2009) 11: 272–280. Nourishing Armor, 2009

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CONNECTING CAUSE TO CONSEQUENCE THE CONTEXT IS COMPETITION

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Often-ignored truths cause oddities: A watched relationship with infection is not confirmation of cause. Treating malady signs & indications, may not evacuate the cause. Smoke predicts fire - it doesn't bring about flame Waving smoke far from flames does NOT forestall fires Don't trouble me with certainties - my brain is as of now made up! Lands, B. Prog.Lipid Res. 2008; 47: 77-106.

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18-carbon 20-& 22-carbon Serving kcals Short 6 Short 3 Long 6 Long 3 Mackerel, ruler, 85g 114 43 98 0 360 Salmon,Atlantic wild 85g 155 187 411 291 1877 Oyster, Pacific 85g 39 54 197 65 1204 Mackerel, jack 95g 296 188 283 131 2535 Clam, canned 85g 126 27 34 70 330 Sablefish 85g 213 179 228 113 1703 Chicken, bosom 110g 202 1485 66 44 Turkey, 140g 235 1442 42 266 98 Pork, loin, 85g 147 400 9 34 0 http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/kim.html

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18-carbon 20-& 22-carbon Serving kcalsShort 6 Short 3 Long 6 Long 3 Mungo beans 85g 69 51 231 0 Beans, french 88g 114 147 254 0 Beans, kidney, red 128g 109 93 148 0 Brussels grows 78g 32 60 131 2 0 Broccoli 180g 50 68 232 0 Cowpeas (Blackeye) 165g 80 77 56 0 Corn, sweet, yellow 82g 66 162 5 0 Chickpeas(garbanzo) 82g 135 913 35 0 Peanuts, 28g 166 4448 1 0 http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/kim.html

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18-carbon 20-& 22-carbon kcals Short6 Short3 Long6 Long3 Oil, canola 1 Tbs 124 2842 1302 0 Oil, walnut 1 Tbs 120 7194 1414 0 Oil, soybean 1 Tbs 120 6936 925 0 Oil, olive 1 Tbs 119 1067 81 0 Sunflower,18:1>70% 1 Tbs 124 505 27 0 Oil, corn 1 Tbs 120 7888 95 0 Food Oils at http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/esstable1.html 18-carbon 20-& 22-carbon k cals Short 6 Short 3 Long 6 Long 3 Oil, perilla 1 Tbs 120 1680 8960 0 Oil, flaxseed 1 Tbs 120 2240 7980 0 Fish oil, herring 1 Tbs 123 156 417 39 1509 Fish oil, salmon 1 Tbs 123 210 525 92 4657 Fish oil, sardine 1 Tbs 123 274 592 239 3096 Fish oil, cod liver 1 Tbs 123 127 254 127 2557 Fish oil, menhaden 1 Tbs 123 293 575 159 3624 Butter oil, anhydrous 1 Tbs 112 288 185 0 Oil, canola 1 Tbs 124 2842 1302 0 Oil, walnut 1 Tbs 120 7194 1414 0 Oil, soybean 1 Tbs 120 6936 925 0 Oil, olive 1 Tbs 119 1067 81 0 Sunflower,18:1>70% 1 Tbs 124 505 27 0 Oil, palm 1 Tbs 120 1238 27 0 Oil, corn 1 Tbs 120 7888 95 0 Oil, nut 1 Tbs 119 4320 0 Oil, coconut 1 Tbs 117 245 0 Sunflower,18:2>60% 1 Tbs 120 8935 0 Safflower, 18:2>70% 1 Tbs 120 10149 0 Safflower, 18:1>70% 1 Tbs 120 1952 0 Oil, palm portion 1 Tbs 117 218 0

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The Context is Competition OMEGA-6 OMEGA-3 Flax oil Canola oil Green Leaves Corn oil Sesame oil Soybean oil Linoleic corrosive (18:2n-6) LA α - Linolenic corrosive (18:3n-3) ALA Dihomo-γ - linolenate (20:3n-6) DGLA Meat Organs Arachidonic corrosive (20:4n-6) AA Eicosapentaenoic corrosive (20:5n-3) EPA Fish Seafood Adrenic Acid (22:4n-6) DPA (22:5n-3) DPA (22:5n-6) Docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) DHA HUFA are H ighly U nsaturated F atty A cids with 20-and 22-carbon & at least 3 twofold securities A biomarker of omega-3 status in tissues is %n-3 in HUFA A biomarker of omega-6 status in tissues is %n-6 in HUFA

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The Context is Competition OMEGA-6 OMEGA-3 Flax oil Canola oil Green Leaves Corn oil Sesame oil Soybean oil Linoleic corrosive (18:2n-6) LA α - Linolenic corrosive (18:3n-3) ALA Dihomo-γ - linolenate (20:3n-6) DGLA Balanced eicosanoid activities Meat Organs Arachidonic corrosive (20:4n-6) AA Eicosapentaenoic corrosive (20:5n-3) EPA Fish Seafood Adrenic Acid (22:4n-6) DPA (22:5n-3) Neurite wellbeing DPA (22:5n-6) Docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) DHA HUFA are H ighly U nsaturated F atty A cids with 20-and 22-carbon & at least 3 twofold securities A biomarker of omega-3 status in tissues is %n-3 in HUFA A biomarker of omega-6 status in tissues is %n-6 in HUFA

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Americans have high omega-6 in HUFA & an omega-3 deficiency = USA quintiles Heart Attack Death Rate High % omega-6 in HUFA implies Omega-3 shortage Primary Prevention happens here % omega-6 in HUFA Lands, Lipids 2003 (Apr.); 38: 317–321 http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/personal.html

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Health Risk Assessment (HRA) Health Risk Assessment of An Omega-3 Deficit Omega-3 shortfall

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FOOD amino acids nucleosides unsaturated fats sugars fundamental FA Connecting essential driver to results Biomarker < This is a legitimate surrogate endpoint for sustenance based essential anticipation of CHD dreariness & mortality % n-6 in HUFA of tissue phospholipids joint inflammation asthma colon malignancy length of clinic remain psychiatric scatters work environment disturbance n-3 & n-6 HUFA discharge oxidant push & irritation & multiplication & disabled nitric oxide XS n-6 eicosanoids ibuprofen vessel divider plaques ischemia platelet enactment Morbidity & Mortality thrombosis arrhythmia

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Wada et al., J Biol Chem. 2007; 282(31):: 22254-66. Tissue HUFA Relative n-3 & n-6 activities with catalysts & receptors Release HUFA Oxidize HUFA to intermediates Make hormones Overall, n-3 frames act less seriously than n-6 shapes. Hormone receptor activities

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F G H "short" "long" P O A B C D J K N L M E The Context is Competition Traditional GC reports portray wt% for ALL deliberate unsaturated fats - yet FEW acids are utilized for clinical translations

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5 6 7 8 9 10 Hyperbolic metabolic change of dietary PUFA to tissue HUFA n-6 Dietary en% 18:2n-6 Dietary en% 18:3n-3 en% n-6 or n-3 PUFA Very low admissions of n-3 or n-6 acids counteract EFA lack Mohrhauer & Holman J. Lipid Res. 3: 151-159, 1963 (likewise observe http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/dri.html) 18:2n-6

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MichaelisMenten Hyperbola ALA (18:3n-3) acts with regards to LA (18:2n-6) rivalry Added n-6 LA diminishes n-3 ALA going to n-3 HUFA Less LA gave more ALA going to n-3 HUFA

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en%H3 HC 3 PC 6 en%P6 en%P3 en%H3 en%O en%P6 PC 3 HI 3 C O Ks HC 6 en%H6 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + Tissue HUFA are kept up by dietary PUFA in an observational hyperbolic metabolic relationship 100 20:3+20:4n-6 in HUFA + = ( ) ( ) + HC 6 = 0.70 HC 3 = 3.0 PC 6 = 0.044 PC 3 = 0.055 HI 3 = 0.005 HI 6 = 0.040 C 0 = 5.0 Ks = 0.175 Lands et al, BBA 1180: 147-162 (1992) [constants overhauled in 2002] ( http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/hufacalc.html )

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From Lands (2003) Curr.Topics Nutraceut.Res. 1 : 113-120 USA 45yr-old urban 55yr-old provincial Assayed Predicted

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Omega-6 Linoleic Acid EAR - Estimated normal necessity for half Study 428 babies, and saw undesirable de

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