Dialect as a characteristic wonder; dialect and brain science; behaviorism

2795 days ago, 860 views
PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Presentation Transcript

Slide 1

Dialect as an inborn wonder; dialect and brain research; behaviorism Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006

Slide 2

Table of substance An impulse to secure a craftsmanship Chatterboxes Mentalese Baby Born Talking-Describing paradise Language, Darwin, Language Instinct and a couple of Fallacies associated with it Words, Words, Words The Tower of Babel Mind Design

Slide 3

A sense to get a workmanship Instinct to learn, talk, and comprehend dialect Language = ponder of the common world Language = overwhelming quality Cognitive science

Slide 4

An intuition to obtain a workmanship How do youngsters learn dialect? Dialect = unpredictable, specific expertise Cognitive researcher: dialect = mental workforce, a mental organ, a neural framework, and a computational module Conception of dialect as an impulse was initially enunciated in 1871 by Darwin

Slide 5

A sense to secure a craftsmanship Most popular contention that dialect is a nature originates from Noam Chomsky Every sentence is a fresh out of the box new mix of words Children create complex linguistic uses quickly and without direction and grow up to give predictable understandings to new sentence development

Slide 6

Why should anybody trust that human dialect is a piece of human science – an intuition – at all ?

Slide 7

Chatterboxes 1920s : Discovering of unexplored nation Jabber = dialect

Slide 8

Chatterboxes Myth: average workers individuals and less taught individuals from white collar class talk a less complex dialect BEV another dialect? He be working He working

Slide 9

Chatterboxes Language advancement in kids Children reevaluate dialect

Slide 10

Chatterboxes How do specific dialects emerged on the planet today? Blended slaves Pidgin = dialect of the slaves Creole = dialect that outcomes when youngsters make a pidgin their local tongue

Slide 11

Chatterboxes Sign dialects: no mimes and motions Full dialect utilizing similar sorts of linguistic hardware discovered worldwide in talked dialects

Slide 12

Chatterboxes Parents don't give unequivocal sentence structure lessons Cildren know things they couldn't have been instructed A unicorn is in the garden A unicorn that is eating a bloom is in the garden

Slide 13

Chatterboxes Language and the mind No one has yet found a dialect organ or a syntax quality however the pursuit is on Stroke or projectile injury Intellectual capacities are all saved

Slide 14

You don't should be working class, you don't have to do well in school, your folks need't to bathe you in dialect, to be sure, you can posess every one of these favorable circumstances and still not be an equipped dialect client, on the off chance that you need only the right qualities or simply the right bits of cerebrum

Slide 15

Mentalese Question: Is thought reliant on words or Are our musings framed in some noiseless medium of the mind and dressed in words at whatever point we need to express them?

Slide 16

Mentalese Pinker says that… we don't think in dialect or in words. we think in visual and sound-related pictures. we contemplate what is valid about what. dialect is a method for imparting musings, of getting them out of one head and into another by making commotion .

Slide 17

Mentalese Pinker calls attention to that… words can be equivocal. Case : adj. "tame" → an agreeable creature, which is not apprehensive of individuals → a manageable point (tame = exhausting) → two unique subjects = two distinct implications of a similar word ≫ Therefore words and musings can't be a similar thing.

Slide 18

Mentalese well known article called "The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax" (myth: Eskimos have hundred words for snow) somebody went to a lexicon of the Eskimo dialect tallied the quantity of words for snow found in first word reference just two, in greater ones twelve or twenty words for snow But : the English dialect has additionally a ton of words for snow (torrential slide, tempest, hard pack, powder, hail, slush)

Slide 19

Mentalese ≠ you think more contemplations or all the more finely segregating musings → in the event that you know a considerable measure about sth., you design new words to express them (= slang/language) → Conclusion: on the off chance that you are a specialist in something you are going to have more language words for it

Slide 20

Mentalese We think in visual pictures: collections of memoirs of incredible researchers, writers, artists and so forth every one of them say that their snapshots of motivation frequently originate from a clear visual picture then they need to battle to discover the words to express that picture in their native language like Einstein : asserted to have happened upon his understanding about relativity hypothesis by envisioning what it resemble to be in a diving lift and afterward to remove a mint piece from your pocket and attempt to drop it

Slide 21

Mentalese → Conclusion: dialect is an extremely rich part of the brain, yet one and only part ≫ The psyche has its very own dialect, autonomous of the dialect that the mouth utilizes, which is called Mentalese . talking = making an interpretation of Mentalese into English or Japanese comprehension = making an interpretation of English or Japanese into Mentalese relying upon which dialect you really talk

Slide 22

Mentalese Pinker conceives this is the reason we can see each other, can decipher and why we can coin new words when we require them. On the off chance that words and contemplations were a similar thing it is difficult to coin another word. Yet, : when talking or composing, individuals frequently have the feeling that they didn't communicate appropriately → there are some examines of the inconspicuous shades of significance inside various word orders Example: "I splashed paint on the divider" "I showered the divider with paint."

Slide 23

Mentalese seem like equivalent words communicating a similar thought The musings they express cover a considerable measure, yet there's a little distinction: There are two methods for comprehension: 1.) the divider is totally secured with paint 2.) there could simply be a little touch in one corner → even small contrasts in the request of words can pass on exceptionally unpretentious contrasts in importance

Slide 24

Mentalese - Mentalese = a state of mind that is very autonomous of dialect □ individuals who were conceived hard of hearing and never learned dialect = ready to express contemplations utilizing gesture based communication (completely expressive, linguistic, complex dialect) → are cut off from a great deal of our way of life (we pass on our way of life through words) → obviously they have minds, which are prepared to do some digest understanding

Slide 25

Mentalese Question: Is our Mentalese formed by dialect in any case (like when you are listening to another person's discourse) ?

Slide 26

Mentalese the substance of Mentalese = provided by dialect finding out about items in faraway spots finding out about theoretical ideas from discussions with other individuals perusing. like the section port into the mind The real sentences of Mentalese regularly get from dialect (we just recall the substance).

Slide 27

Mentalese the advancement of the human species = development of dialect +the advancement of dialect in thought Chain: think more perplexing musings → puts weight on you → ready to impart them → individuals providing you to complex dialect → puts weight on you → ready to have those contemplations ≫ a sort of input circle, where every one aided the other

Slide 28

Mentalese an issue of propensities certain dialect assembles constantly develop certain states that then they get a kick out of the chance to discuss in the propensity for managing distinctive parts of the world → managing other individuals who are additionally managing those angles → going to design the words to have the capacity to convey them But the way that we can create words is the thing that makes Pinker imagine that the encounters start things out .

Slide 29

Conclusion Mentalese = a mindset that is entirely free of dialect; the dialect of the mind People think in visual and sound-related pictures. Considerations are communicated with words yet they are not controlled by dialect. Dialect is a method for imparting considerations. Dialect is an intuition, on the grounds that likewise hard of hearing individuals impart in a path in which a sort of dialect is utilized.

Slide 30

Conclusion The way that individuals can imagine new words demonstrates that the encounters start things out. Mentalese is provided by correspondence or perusing and is, somehow, impacted by culture.

Slide 31

References Steven Pinker, The Language Instinct www.williamjames.com/transcripts/pinker1.htm … . … .. … ..

Slide 32

Baby Born Talking-Describing paradise

Slide 33

Introduction The Stages of Language Acquisition Common Grammar Mistakes Conclusion

Slide 34

1. Presentation The Sun , a newspaper every day daily paper distributed in the UK and the Republic of Ireland, has the most elevated dissemination of any day by day English-dialect daily paper on the planet: On May 21, 1985 the Sun composed: " BABY BORN TALKING – DESCRIBING HEAVEN. Newborn child's words verification resurrection exists.'' On June 8, 1993: " AMAZING 2 HEADED BABY IS PROOF OF REINCARNATION. ONE HEAD SPEAKS ENGLISH – THE OTHER ANCIENT LATIN." Why does this lone happen in fiction???

Slide 35

2. The Stages of Language Acquisition - most youngsters don't talk until they are one year old - first begin joining words with around year and a half - begin talking in familiar syntactic sentences until they are 2-3 Nevertheless Infants as of now have phonetic abilities when they are conceived.

Slide 36

2. The Stages of Language Acquisition Psychologists Jacques Mehler and Peter Jusczyk: Babies know about their mom's dialect French Infants suck harder when listening to their native language The children probably learned something in the womb of the mother and amid the primary days after their introduction to the world

Slide 37

2. The Stages of Language Acquisition During the principal year: Learn the hints of their dialect Get their discourse framework outfitted Produce sounds: cries, snorts, moans, snaps, stops and later snickers and coos ( ca. 2 months) Play with sounds rather th