Development of Discrimination Experimental Ethics

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Advancement of Discrimination (Experimental Ethics) Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen BSE (Hon.) Project Supervisors: Ann Nicholson, Kevin Korb

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Outline Introduction & Motivation & Main objective Related ideas Experimental Design The world The specialists Observations & Results Conclusion References Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Introduction & Motivation Discrimination: The capacity to perceive contrasts. The inclination to offer diverse treatement on the premise of those distinctions. Positive: telling valuable from unsafe. Negative: unreasonable treatement: bigotry, sexism, and so on. Does separation advance? Advancement of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Main objective The objective of this study is: To watch the development of oppressive inclinations in astute species through social communications. Development of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Related ideas Evolutionary Theory Natural choice – survival of the fittest Evolutionary Psychology Evolution of practices/mental characteristics Baldwin Effect Roles of learning in advancement Ethocentrism Ingroup hyper-assessment Outgroup negative streotype Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma (IPD) Alife Simulation Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Experimental Design Using reenactments to study separation Standard Alife setup: The world The specialists Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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The world A wrap-around leading body of n-by-m areas Each area can contain a vast number of operators Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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The specialist Chromosome: alterable genotype Behavior: adaptable phenotype Discrimination is demonstrated utilizing chromosome and conduct Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Chromosome versus Behavior Chromosome influences conduct during childbirth. Conduct influences the inclination of conceivable activities. Chromosome is altered through transformation. Conduct is changed through learning. Social learning (imitate) Individual (learning through agony/delight) Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Chromosome, Behavior and the Environment Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Modeling segregation Chromosome: "separation quality" Behavior: "prejudicial conduct" Discrimination <- > Preference Preferential genotype Preferential conduct Measurable Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Preferences How positive/negative an operator "feels" about specialists in his own particular gathering/the other gathering Represenation: two numbers, each somewhere around 0 and 1 Two sorts of inclinations: Ingroup inclination: towards the ingroup Outgroup inclination: towards the outgroup E.g.: Ingroup inclination = 0.7, outgroup inclination = 0.4 Preferential practices <- > unfair activities Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Preference Test for inclination (ingroup/outgroup): Choose arbitrarily: x in [0,1] Compare x with p x <= p : like x > p : disdain x =Test(preference) disappointment achievement Like p Dislike 0 1 Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Main genotypes Based on the estimations of inclinations (chromosome), there are 5 fundamental genotypes, each may advance in an unexpected way. Advancement of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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The operator (cont.) Other attributes: Race (can likewise be: religion, philosophy, and so forth.) Health Age Location Fitness = #children + 2 x #grandchildren Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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A run of the mill cycle During 1 cycle of the reproduction, each specialist can play out all activities, in the accompanying request: Move Learn socially (copy the best) Mate + imitate Interact + learn through torment and delight Note: Agents don't eat, wellbeing is influenced specifically through connection Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Preferences in real life - Moving Agents can move in four bearings Agents pick their area in light of the amount they like the larger part of operators in a specific area. Operators considers their present area and in addition four cells around them. Contemplations are done in arbitrary request Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Moving illustration In_pref = 0.8 Out_pref = 0.3 Majority = Red Test(Out_pref) = 0.4 Result: 0.4 > 0.3 => Failed In_pref = 0.8 Out_pref = 0.3 Majority = Blue Test(In_pref) = 0.6 Result: 0.6 > 0.8 => Success Note: significantly more prone to move in with its own kind Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Preference in real life – Social Learning (emulating) Agents gain from different operators in a similar area Agents gain from the race they like first Agents gain from the specialists the see as best (the symbol) Success = wellness x (maxAge – age) Mimicking: Depends on s ocial learning achievement rate Change inclinations towards the icon's inclinations Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Preference in real life – Mating There is no sexual orientation Inter-racial Mating is consensual Consent is given on the premise of racial inclination I.e. both accomplices must breeze through the inclination test Mating hapens locally Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Reproduction When mating is effective, another operator is made in an indistinguishable area from its folks New specialist has a 50-50 possibility of getting: Either parent's race Either parent's ingroup inclination (chromosome), or transform Either parent's outgroup inclination (chromosome), or transform A little shot of transformation: Change the esteem to any x in [0,1] Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Reproduction illustration Chromosome: 0.3/0.5 Behavior: 0.6/0.9 Chromosome: 0.6/0.4 Behavior: 0.3/0.7 Chromosome: 0.6/0.4 Behavior: 0.3/0.5 Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Preference in real life – Interaction & Indiv. Adapting Every specialist cooperates with another operator in a similar area, haphazardly picked. Collaboration is basically an IPD* amusement: Each operator does an inclination test on the other If achievement: the specialist participates If disappointment: the operator imperfections Agent's wellbeing is overhauled as needs be Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Interaction exchange offs A common IPD is portrayed with the accompanying request of exchange offs: Defect – Cooperate – Cooperate Defect – Defect Cooperate – Defect Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Learning through joy and torment Agents change their inclination as indicated by the aftereffect of their connection with another operator. In the event that Pleasure : increment inclination If Pain : diminish inclination Preference test additionally applies: Only increment inclination if achievement Only decline inclination if disappointment Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Experiments Difference between genotypes Relationship amongst wellness and inclination Relationship amongst ingroup and outgroup inclination Population improvement and geological dissemination of the races Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Experimental modes Separated people group: Two races begin in disengagement Mixed people group: Two race combined from the begin Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Running the reproduction Run 30 recreations in each exploratory mode Each reenactment is 1000-cycle long Starting populace is 7000 World size: 50x50 All operators begin off as "Direct": In_pref = Out_pref = 0.5 Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Results - Overview The genotypes evolved Order of wellness (most - > minimum): Supremacist Do-gooder Hater Betrayer Ethnocentric practices Most influenced by the Supremacist and Do-gooder Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Results - Overview Separated people group not quite the same as blended groups: Separated: Less varieties in genotype More varieties in races Complete control + termination Mixed: More varieties in genotype Less varieties in races Domination changes hands Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Results - Experiment 1 Difference between genotypes Separated people group Mixed people group Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Results - Experiment 1 Separated people group Mixed people group Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Results – Experiment 2 Relationship amongst wellness and inclination Separated people group Mixed people group Correlations: Inpref-Fitness = 0.887, p = 0.01 Outpref-Fitness = - 0.519, p = 0.01 Correlations: Inpref-Fitness = 0.920, p = 0.01 Outpref-Fitness = - 0.660, p = 0.01 Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Results – Experiment 3 Relationship amongst ingroup and outgroup inclination Separated people group Mixed people group Correlations: Inpref-Outpref = - 0.750, p = 0.01 Correlations: Inpref-Outpref = - 0.951, p = 0.01 Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Results – Experiment 3 Separated people group Mixed people group Correlation: Inpref-Outpref = 0.736, p = 0.01 Correlations: Inpref-Outpref = - 0.774, p = 0.01 Evolution of Discrimination - Chung Tue "DuCK" Nguyen

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Results – Experiment 4 Population advancement and land distributio

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