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Shield AND MATERIALS FOR COMBAT THREAT AND DAMAGE PROTECTION Gwynedd A. Thomas, Ph.D. Reddish University Polymer and Fiber Engineering

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Some DoD Projects (Dr. Gwen Thomas, P.I.) US Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (Comanche Project, 1998) US Army ARDEC Picatinny Arsenal (LOSAT Kinetic Energy Missile Protection, 2001) US Army Air Warrior Program (Air Warrior Vest Upgrade, Phases 1-3, 2002-2006) US Navy NAVAIR (V-22 Osprey Internal Armor Provision, momentum) Army Research Lab take after on (2009) AFSOCOM, AFRL, USSOCOM take after on (2010 - >) ONR Roadside Bomb Protection (2010)

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Modern Military Body Armor The FLAK coat 1942-1970 FLAK = Fliegerabwehrkanone (AAA) This covering was just proposed to stop shrapnel Not expected for slugs

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Ballistic defensive layer has 2 fields of use Police and government authorities Rated shot dangers (handguns, long weapons) Armor: light, concealable, adaptable Military applications Threats from unstable gadget sections High vitality shot dangers (smg, rifle, mg) http://operation

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Energy conveyed by different ammo

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Modern Protective Materials Fibers Very light Very restricted Very adaptable Ceramics Very solid Pretty light Really costly! Metals Very solid Relatively modest VERY substantial

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Energy ingestion in aramids Tensile quality 23-28 gpd Elongation to break 2.5 - 3.5 % Young's modulus 500 - 900 gpd Specific gravity = 1.44 Fibrillates on effect

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Energy retention in HPPE Tensile quality 30 - 40 gpd Elongation to break 2.5 - 3.6 % Young's modulus 1400 - 2400 gpd Specific gravity = 0.97 Usually uniaxially wrapped and sap encased*

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Poly{2,6-diimidazo[4,5-b4',5'- e]pyridinylene-1,4(2,5-dihydroxy)phenylene} Commercial name "M5" Reputation as the up and coming Rock Star of ballistic safe strands Tests by U.S. Armed force Natick Soldier Center labs show extremely encouraging probability of accomplishment in ballistic applications But there is minimal accessible right now PIPD Fiber

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Ceramics Aluminum oxide Silicon Carbide Boron carbide Aluminum nitride

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Aluminum oxide ( Al 2 O 3 ) Also known as alumina Naturally happening mineral of aluminum High immaculateness grades make worthy reinforcement Spec. grav. = 3.7 - 3.9 Less costly than other protection review earthenware production Is likewise the material of rubies and sapphires

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Silicon carbide ( SiC ) Very uncommon in nature Found in shooting stars Very successful in body shield and Chobham reinforcement Much more costly than alumina Spec. grav. = 3.1-3.22 Hardness = 2800 kg/mm 2

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Boron carbide ( B 4 C ) Third hardest known material Diamond = 1 Cubic boron nitride = 2 Spec. grav. ~ 2.5 Extremely compelling in defensive layer Very costly Hardness = 2900 - 3550 kg/mm 2

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Aluminum Oxynitride ( AlON ) "Straightforward aluminum" or "straightforward earthenware" Spec. grav. 3.69 Superior to glass and Lexan in straightforward protective layer Scratch safe Defeats .50 cal AP Very costly ($10-$15/square creep!) Hardness=1850 kg/mm 2

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Fragment safeguard – nonwoven approach Nonwovens permit a lot of dampness and warmth transport contrasted with tight weaves. This nonwoven does not require plastic gum coatings. Solid weight preferences for nonwoven textures over woven textures (8+lbs) Initial business presentation of 100% HPPE nonwoven - DSM "Fraglight", 1995 Initial recommendation of mixed nonwoven textures Thomas and Thompson, Techtextil 1992 Cordova, Kirkland et al 1994 Fiber mix nonwoven 100% Kevlar nonwoven (TechTextil Frankfurt, Thomas and Thompson)

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Energy assimilation in HPPE/Aramid fiber mixes Radiated strain vitality Transferred by aramid and HPPE past effect zone Fibrillation of aramids But texture arrange trustworthiness saved by non-moldable character of aramid Phase change actuated in the thermoplastic HPPE Resulted in a 30% expansion in execution over the anticipated constrain dissemination conduct Tests performed at DuPont labs, Wilmington, DE

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Fragment covering enhancements with nonwoven innovation Results from US Army Aberdeen Proving Grounds test .22 cal. 1.10 gram, section reenacting shot, steel Parameters : Weight < 3.42 kg/m2 Projectile speed > 425 m/sec (1400fps) Nonwoven materials were better than woven aramid and woven PBO Historical advancement of nonwoven defensive layer Original Kevlar 29 = 389 m/sec Original (1991) mix yielded 434 m/sec (HPPE, second quality and Kevlar 29) * Test comes about 31 August – 1 September 2002

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Results of V50 testing, 0.13 gram (2 grain) RCC FSP

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Results of V50 testing, 0.26 gram (4 grain) RCC FSP

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Results of V50 testing, 1.0 gram (16 grain) RCC FSP

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Results of V50 testing, 4.15 gram (64 grain) RCC FSP

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Results of V50 testing, 9 mm, 8.0 gram (124 grain) FMJ

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US Marines Test Results I.E.D's. 2.2lbs/ft 2 test, go 15 meters Nine parts affected the specimen board No total entrance. 3 huge (50-150 grain) pieces affected the board alongside six littler (50 grain or less) parts. One of the expansive parts, infiltrated three ArmorFelt and 14 aramid layers (out of 3 layers of ArmorFelt, 40 layers of Kevlar, 3 layers of ArmorFelt) No other substantial sections, entered further than three ArmorFelt layers None of the pieces totally infiltrated the defensive layer.

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US Marines Test Results I.E.D's. (cont) 2.2lbs/ft 2 test, go 5 meters 22 parts affected the specimen board 1 finish infiltration. 2 vast (50-150 grain) sections affected the board alongside twenty littler (50 grain or less) parts. Stand out of the two substantial parts, totally entered the shield (3 layers of ArmorFelt, 40 layers of Kevlar, 3 layers of ArmorFelt) None of the littler pieces infiltrated the reinforcement.

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US Marines Test Results Hand Grenades Tests performed at Quantico, VA 2 tests tried An) Identical to Auburn AW outline B) Heavier than Auburn AW plan M-67 hand explosive One explosion every objective from 4 feet extend Results A) No entrances on Auburn AW outline sort 22 hits by pieces B) 1 infiltration on heavier sort 17 hits by sections

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Levels III and IV Very high vitality shots 7.62 x 51 FMJ (.308)

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State of the Art SAPI Small Arms Protective Insert Based on Boron or Silicon Carbide Backing made of aramid or HPPE composites

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ESAPI Enhanced Small Arms Protective Insert Permits assurance against covering entering slugs Was required security starting 2003

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Ceramic or metal plate shield spall As the shot enters the reinforcement discontinuity (break) happens force is exchanged to the particles a spall cloud frames V spall = US Army, ARL Website

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Armor puncturing shots Most genuine danger to military staff with body covering May utilize either solidified steel or tungsten carbide Designed as multicomponent (eg) copper sheath lead tip (spall generator) carbon steel inside Graphic affability of Jeff Simon, SRI International

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One answer for this issue - Stop the shots by initiating turmoil A direction is an exceedingly requested motor way Targets are devastated by arrival of the dynamic vitality where the shot is pointed Destabilization can bring about corruption of lethality, active vitality exchange

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An adaptable hard protective layer media Generation of numerous concurrent ways Projectile spreads, sections Spall cloud diverted by inner geometrics Fragment guard by nonwovens Graphic graciousness of Jeff Simon, SRI International US Patent # 5,736,474, "Multistructure Ballistic Material", Auburn University Thomas., 1997

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Projectile Impact Sequence How the new defensive layer functions: In the underlying phases of the effect, the shot enters the vest in the typical way, with standard ballistic safe textures or thin, high quality artistic plates misshaping the main end and expanding the shot drag as it enters. Upon passage into the geometrics zone, the shot is turned by the diverting surfaces. As it proceeds with the way, the at first transformed driving end is redirected into different ways while the trailing end has not yet encountered the torquing activity of the stun waves in the shot body. The front bit starts to crumble, making room for the back segment to be diverted along comparable invert torqued ways until the shot is at last completely wrecked and stops in the geometric layer. In starting tests with this media, both 7.62x39 mm Russian and .30-06 US rifle ammo have been wrecked at 15 meters separate and less without the utilization of artistic front plate facings on the covering bundle. Both ammo sorts were demolished in multi hit test conditions.

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ChaoTech: Hard protective layer media Generation of various synchronous ways Projectile spreads, parts Spall cloud diverted by inner geometrics Fragment guard by Armor Felt Multiple materials accessible ChaoTech lessens the heaviness of any defensive layer material 7.62x39 API (6 hits) .30-06 APM2 (5 hits) 12.7 mm API (All shots affected at full gag speeds)