Data Systems Planning

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Data Systems Planning Chapter 4 Information Systems Management In Practice 7E McNurlin & Sprague PowerPoints arranged by Michael Matthew Visiting Lecturer, GACC, Macquarie University – Sydney Australia

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Chapter 4 Systems arranging, particularly key frameworks arranging, is turning out to be more troublesome and more vital in the meantime. Innovation is changing so quick that it is appears to be worthless to get ready for it, yet the reliance on this innovation makes arranging its compelling utilize a matter of authoritative life and demise This address/part differentiates the customary perspective of arranging with the sense-and-react approach of procedure making, showing seven IS arranging strategies Case cases incorporate Microsoft, Skandia Future Centers, Shell Oil, a vehicle producer, Cisco Systems, and Electric Power Research Institute

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Today's Lecture Introduction Types of arranging Why is arranging so troublesome? The Changing World of Planning Traditional Strategy-Making Today's Sense-and-Respond Approach

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Today's Lecture cont. Seven Planning Techniques Stages of Growth Critical Success Factors Competitive Forces Model Five Forces Analysis of the Internet Value Chain Analysis E-Business Value Matrix Linkage Analysis Planning Scenario Planning

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Introduction IS administration is turning out to be more troublesome and more vital in the meantime : Technology changing so quick: "Why trouble?" Vs. Most associations' survival is dependant on innovation How to determine this obvious oddity? Uplifting news = assortment of methodologies, apparatuses and components accessible Bad News = no "best" approach

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Introduction cont. It is imperative to set up the fitting attitude for arranging : Some directors accept = "figuring out what choices to make later on" Better view = building up a perspective without bounds that aides basic leadership today Subtle contrast = 'procedure making' Strategy = expressing the bearing in which you need to go and how you mean to arrive The aftereffect of technique making is an arrangement

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Why Planning Is So Difficult Types of Planning : Planning is normally characterized in three structures, which compare to the three arranging 'skylines'. (Figure 4-1) Strategic = 3-5 years Tactical = 1-2 years Operational 6 months – 1 year

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Types of Planning

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Introduction cont. Why P lanning I s So D ifficult ? : Business Goals and Systems Plans Need to Align Strategic frameworks arranges need to adjust to business objectives and bolster those destinations Some accept = "excessively delicate" = PROBLEMS Fortunately = drift for CIOs to be a piece of senior administration Technologies Are Rapidly Changing How would you be able to arrange for when data innovations are changing so quickly Continuous arranging? Past times of arranging at 'begin of year' = gone Advanced innovation bunches

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Introduction cont. Why P lanning I s So D ifficult cont . : Companies Need Portfolios Rather Than Projects Evaluation on more than their individual legitimacy How they fit into different tasks and how they adjust the arrangement of activities Infrastructure Development is Difficult to Fund Despite everybody "knowing framework advancement is significant", it is greatly hard to get subsidizing just to create or enhance foundation Often done under the protection of an expansive application extend Challenge = create enhanced applications and enhance foundation after some time Responsibility Needs to be Joint Business arranging, not only an innovation issue Other arranging issues Top-down Vs. base up; radical change Vs. consistent Planning society

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The Changing World of Planning Internet and so forth = "presented" speed into the business condition and changed how individuals consider time, how much time they need to arrange, respond to contenders and so forth. Conventional Strategy-Making : Business administrators made a key marketable strategy = where the business needed to go IS officials made an IS vital arrangement = how IT would bolster the strategy for success IT usage arrange made = portray precisely how the IS key arrangement would be executed Assumptions: The future can be anticipated Time is accessible to do these 3 sections IS backings and takes after the business Top administration knows best (broadest perspective of firm) Company = like an "Armed force"

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The Changing World of Planning

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The Changing World of Planning cont. Today, because of the Internet and other innovative advances, these presumptions no longer remain constant : The future can't be anticipated Who anticipated Internet, Amazon, eBay and so on.? Time is not accessible for the arrangement IS does not JUST bolster the business any longer Figure 2-8 Top administration may not know best Inside out Vs. outside in approach (Figure 4-3) An association dislike an armed force Industrial period allegory no longer dependably applies

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Today's Sense-and-Response Approach If yesterday's suppositions no longer remain constant, what is taking the "old" approach's place?: Let Strategies Unfold Rather Than Plan Them: In times of quick paced change (like today!) this is unsafe When expectations are 'dangerous', the best approach to move into what's to come is well ordered utilizing a sense-and-react approach Sense another open door and instantly react by means of testing it through a trial Myriad of little analyses (Figure 4-6) Formulate system nearest to the activity: Close contact with the market Employees who communicate day by day with clients, providers and accomplices Employees who are nearest to the future ought to end up distinctly prime strategists. In the 'Web Age' = more youthful workers

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The Changing World of Planning

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MICROSOFT case: Sense and Respond Strategy-Making Abandoned exclusive system in spite of huge $ when it didn't catch enough clients Moved on to purchasing Internet Companies and also adjusting to Sun to advance Java Over time = moved into an assortment of innovations: Web, Cable news, Digital motion pictures, Cable modems, Handheld OS, Video server, Music, Multiplayer gaming Not all originated from 'top administration' e.g. to start with server originated from a "revolt" extend Getting its fingers into each pie that may get to be distinctly critical Missed some – paid $$$ later

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SKANDIA FUTURE CENTERS Case illustration: Formulate Strategy Closest to the Action Incubator for testing thoughts on IT, social connections, and systems administration for Skandia, the huge Swedish insurance agency Different eras (3G: 25+, 35+, 45+) work together 'on-the-edge' extends keeping in mind the end goal to talk = concentrate on inquiries (= discourse) as opposed to answers (= banter about) Presented as "plays" (Vs. Report) "Cultivate" = a portion of the undertakings are developing; others = not Combining senior shrewdness with youngsters' business prompts to a genuine powerhouse

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Today's Sense-and-Response Approach cont. In the event that yesterday's suppositions no longer remain constant, what is taking the "old" approach's place? cont. : Guide Strategy-Making with a 'Vital Envelope': Having a bunch of potential corporate systems being tried in parallel could prompt to disorder without a focal controlling instrument Top administration set the parameters for the analyses (= a 'vital envelope'), and afterward ceaselessly deal with that setting Need to meet frequently to talk about: Shifts in the commercial center How well each of the examinations is continuing Gaining "followership" or indicating disappearing interest?

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SHELL OIL case: Guide Strategy-Making with a 'Vital Envelope' New GM trusted change would just happen on the off chance that he went specifically to his 'forefronts' (corner store representatives). Put aside half of his time Goal = not to drive system from "Corporate" (attempted and flopped inauspiciously) however to cooperate specifically with the grass roots and bolster their drives Technique = utilization of activity labs (6 to 8 individuals): Week long retailing 'training camp', peer challenges, 'hot seats', 60 day arrange executions, report back and so forth. Ventures brought forth numerous more activities Guidance and supporting originated from the top, so that there was not finished turmoil

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Today's Sense-and-Response Approach cont. In the event that yesterday's suppositions no longer remain constant, what is taking the "old" approach's place? cont. : Be at the Table : IS administrators have not generally been included in business strategising This circumstance is untenable in today's 'Web driven' world. Note: first = need to make division sound Test the Future Need to test potential fates before the business is prepared for them (thinking ahead about the business) Provide financing for trials Have a rising advancements aggregate

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Today's Sense-and-Response Approach cont. In the event that yesterday's suspicions no longer remain constant, what is taking the "old" approach's place? cont. : Put the Infrastructure in Place: Moving rapidly in Internet business implies having the correct IT foundation set up. The most basic IT choices are foundation. Suggested that IT "tests" incorporate those that test "difficult" foundation issues, for example, how to: Create and look after normal, steady information definitions Create and impart portable business guidelines among handheld gadgets Implement online business security and protection measures Determine operational stages (ERP, Supply Chain Management … )

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Seven Planning Techniques Stages of G rowth Critical S uccess F performers Competitive F orces M odel Value C hain A nalysis E-business V alue M atrix Linkage A nalysis Planning Scenario Planning

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1. Phases of Growth Stage One: Early Successes: Increased premium and experimentation Stage Two: Contagion: Interest develops quickly; learning period for the field Stage Three: Control: Efforts started toward institutionalization Stage Four: Integration: Pattern is rehashed Example (Figure 4-5): DP Era 1960 – earl