Dark Liquor Gasification Design Project GP Wauna

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Motivation. Gasifier DesignMill IntegrationEnvironmentalEconomics. High Temperature Gasification. Picture Source: http://www.eng.utah.edu/~whitty/blackliquor/colloquium2003/pdfs_handouts/5.6.Lindblom-Chemrec_Handout.pdf. High Temperature Gasification. Syngas Properties:Heating ValueSulfur. H2S in Syngas values from Larson 2003. .

Presentation Transcript

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Dark Liquor Gasification Design Project GP Wauna Gasifier Design Justin Aldrich, Adam Cooper, Khoa Hua, Jim Jollimore Mill Integration Sean Noste, Steve Ross, John Salvatier, Peter Siedenburg, Nilar Thein-chen Environmental Cody Hargrove, Sonha Pham, Claire Schairbaum, Larissa Zuk Economics Darrow Conley, Ryan McMahon, Vinh Nguyen, Suzy Quach

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Agenda Gasifier Design Mill Integration Environmental Economics

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High Temperature Gasification Image Source: http://www.eng.utah.edu/~whitty/blackliquor/colloquium2003/pdfs_handouts/5.6.Lindblom-Chemrec_Handout.pdf

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High Temperature Gasification Gasifier values from Larson 2003. Characteristic gas an incentive from Wikipedia. H 2 S in Syngas values from Larson 2003. Syngas Properties: Heating Value Sulfur

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High Temperature Gasification Effect on Causticization Load Reliability Weyerhauser, New Bern, Chemrec Booster 1996.

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Low Temperature: Pros Low Temperature Better profit for vitality Ease of getting chemicals back H 2 S is in a vaporous frame Proven framework that is right now running Norampac Trenton Ontario Use warmth to deliver required steam and power

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Low Temperature: Con Need extra hardware to recoup Chemicals Air scrubbers to recuperate SO 2 Higher beginning expense than High Temp ~32% higher introductory startup cost

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BL Solids @ 67% Solids Cooling Water Vent 95% O 2 , 20 ° C Raw Syngas, 122 ° C High Temp Gasifier 1000 ° C 35 bar 165 TPD O 2 Plant To Lime Kiln 2 Stage Gas Cooler or Heat Exchanger LP Steam? Crude Syngas 200 ° C 35 bar Cooling Water? Air, 20 ° C Cooled Green Liquor 132 ° C GL Cond HX Clean Syngas 40 ° C ~30 Bar H 2 S and CO 2 WL Scrubber Selexol Absorber 40 °C ~30 bar Selexol Stripper 40 °C ~30 bar High Sulfidity White Liquor White Liquor Trim Cooler Raw Syngas, 40 ° C LP Steam

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Raw Syngas , 600 ° C Steam Cooling Water Clean Syngas Low Temp Gasifier 650 ° C 1.2 bar 165 TPD PC Heater Flue Gas HX Low Pressure Superheater Heat Exchanger BL Solids @ 67% Solids Superheated Steam LP Steam or Warm Water Mix Tank & Filter Dregs Clean Syngas 40 ° C Compressor Na 2 CO 3 H 2 S and CO 2 WL Scrubber Selexol Absorber 40 °C ~25 bar Selexol Stripper 40 °C ~25 bar High Sulfidity White Liquor Or Green Liquor White Liquor Trim Cooler Raw Syngas, 40 ° C LP Steam

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Claus Plant 2H 2 S + O 2 → S 2 +2H 2 O Converts H 2 S gas into natural sulfur Has two sections: warm stage and reactant stages Operates at direct temperatures (340° C to 200° C) Uses Titanium Dioxide or Alumina as an impetus 94 to 97% proficiency relying upon the quantity of synergist stages

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Liquor Scrubbing H 2 S + 2NaOH → Na 2 S + 2H 2 O Product gas stream contains CO 2 and H 2 S Scrubbing CO 2 creates Na 2 CO 3 which increment the lime furnace stack Use the NaOH in the alcohol to recapture the pulping compound Na 2 S 85% effectiveness at sulfur recuperation

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CrystaSulf 2H 2 S + SO 2 → ⅜ S 8 + 2H 2 O + 33kcal/gmole Uses SO 2 to change over H 2 S into essential sulfur Operates at lower temperatures (170 °C) Claims to be more practical for 0.2 to 30 LTPD H 2 S streams Uses hydrocarbons and amines as impetuses

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Mill Integration: Objective Energy and Mass Balance on Process Create WinGEMS Model Determine Impact of Gasifier Effect of Burning Syngas in Lime Kiln Transportation of Syngas

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Schematic from Wauna Mill

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Steam Balance Calculation

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Calculation Comparison

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Kraft Pulp Mill and Recovery CaO Steam Make-Up vents Fresh shower water Green alcohol White alcohol Wood chips 1800 lady add up to/min Chip White alcohol clarifier Clarified green alcohol clarifier presteam Black 581.3 lady add up to/min 724 lady add up to/min Clarified white alcohol 2116 od st/day alcohol TTA: 130 g/l as NaOH Brownstock Slaker Unbleached mash washers To 1003 od st/day 16.1 mt/hr Makeup scrubber 1302 lady add up to/min 4.2 lady add up to/min CONTINUOUS DIGESTER 31 psig NaOH 0.0002 g/l as NaOH EA 34 cons% 1653 lady add up to/min Flash 10 cons% Grits tank Makeup chemicals to blend tank Wash Dregs Filtrate zone Weak Flue gas dark Spills Scrubber 177.2 lady add up to/min Weak wash Weak wash to SDT alcohol 36 cons% 1577.1 lady add up to/min 687 lady add up to/min White alcohol 16.5 %mass to digesters Recovery Shower Pulp yield: EA: 107 g/l as NaOH Evaporators water 47.4 % Boiler Sulfidity: 28 % Digester 581 lady add up to/min Strong dark alcohol Flue Lost blaze steam Air gas lime tidy 302.2 lady add up to/min 64 %mass Spent corrosive Lime Kiln Mud Fresh water washer cosmetics Recovered Fuel 542 lady add up to/min sulfur Stream 59 stream is controlled to accomplish a TTA of 130 g/l as NaOH Makeup chemicals in the green alcohol, stream 50 . Lime SDT Smelt Air Mud washer and channel filtrates BL spills Tall Condensate oil WinGEMS Full Mill Created By Pacific Simulation

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Kraft Pulp Mill and Recovery White alcohol 0 lady add up to/min Wood chips 420 od st/day Unbleached mash 0 od st/day 0 lady add up to/min 0 g/l as NaOH EA CaO Steam Make-Up vents Fresh shower water Green alcohol White alcohol Wood chips 1800 lady add up to/min Chip clarifier Clarified green alcohol clarifier presteam Black 0 lady add up to/min Clarified white alcohol 1000 od st/day TTA: 0 g/l as NaOH Brownstock Slaker washers CONTINUOUS DIGESTER To 0 mt/hr Makeup scrubber 0 lady add up to/min - 14.7 psig NaOH 0 cons% 0 lady add up to/min 0 cons% Flash Grits tank Makeup chemicals to blend tank Wash Dregs Filtrate zone Weak Flue gas dark Spills Scrubber 0 lady add up to/min alcohol Weak wash Weak wash to SDT 0 cons% 0 lady add up to/min 1300 lady add up to/min White alcohol 0 %mass to digesters Shower Pulp yield: EA: 0 g/l as NaOH water 0 % Sulfidity: 0 % Digester 0 lady add up to/min Flue Lost glimmer steam Air gas lime tidy Lime Kiln Mud Fresh water washer cosmetics Fuel 626 lady add up to/min Stream 59 stream is controlled to Recovery accomplish a TTA of 130 g/l as NaOH Evaporators Strong dark alcohol Lime Boiler in the green alcohol, stream 50 . 0 lady add up to/min 0 %mass Mud washer and channel filtrates Spent corrosive Recovered sulfur Makeup chemicals SDT Smelt Air BL spills Tall Condensate oil WinGEMS Modification

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Burning Syngas in Lime Kiln Combustion in furnace and TADs Sulfur should be scoured from syngas Send cleaned sulfur to oven for recuperation Combustion in oven just No compelling reason to scour sulfur from syngas Potential increment in ball and ring development from sulfur

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Transportation of Syngas Hydrogen is principle part in syngas Amount of carbon in steel diminishes when in contact with hydrogen making stashes Methane shapes in pockets inside the steel making steel get to be distinctly weak Choice of material is imperative

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Mill Integration: Conclusion Modified WinGEMs Simulation Adequately Future correlation of High and Low Temp Using WinGEMS Comparing concoction parities Steam adjust Load on lime furnace Optimal utilization of syngas

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Air Emissions B need alcohol gasifier framework ought to have low air emanations including: CO 2 (Carbon Dioxide) SO 2 (Sulfur Dioxide) NO X (Nitride Oxides) VOCs (unstable natural mixes) TRS discharges (Total Reduced Sulfur) A great deal of contaminant evacuation is required to recoup the pulping chemicals from the gas

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Air Emissions: High Temp versus Low Temp Figure 1. Emanations assessed for low temperature and high temperature gasifiers. The qualities were figured utilizing a 353 day working calendar for each year. Source: Larson, E.D., & Consonni, S., & Katofsky, R.E. (2003). A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Biomass Gasification Power Generation in the Pulp and Paper Industry.

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Air Emissions: Mill Limits Figure 2. These are emanation principles for the Georgia-Pacific factory in Wauna. Source: Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. (2005). Oregon Title V Operating (Permit Number 04-0004). Portland, OR.

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Water Emissions & Usage Two water issues related with the expansion of gasifier: Water Usage Thermal Pollution Secondary treatment office has a greatest limit of 42 million lady/day. In 2007, GP Wauna arrived at the midpoint of 27.3 million lady/day. It is extremely unlikely the gasifier will bring about the plant to expand its water utilization by 15 million lady/day.

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Thermal Pollution Maximum reasonable release temperature from optional treatment plant is 20 °C. In 2007, GP Wauna's auxiliary treatment was bolstered squander water at a temperature of 29.3 °C. The expansion of 7.2 million gpd at 40 °C from the gasifier could conceivably raise the temperature of the release squander water stream by 2 °C.

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Syngas Exposure Carbon Monoxide – PEL 50 ppm EXTREMELY dangerous Flammable Hydrogen – No PEL Not harmful; over the top introduction may prompt to suffocation EXTREMELY combustible Carbon Dioxide – PEL 5,000 ppm Toxic

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Syngas Storage Store in all around ventilated ranges. Store where temperature is under 50 °C Remove starting and start perils Stainless steel is palatable Risk of embrittlement with hydrogen Syngas is not unadulterated hydrogen, so embrittlement hazard is insignificant

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Natural Gas Usage

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Raw Syngas Component

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Raw Syngas Produced

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CO 2 Produced

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Social Impact Benefit Improve the financial aspects Greenhouse gasses decrease Lower net emanation of CO 2 Possible drawback Water warm release

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Economics: Agenda Major Equipment Summary of Calculation Capital Cost Analysis Cost Reduction Conclusions

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Major Equipment and Components Gasifier Air Separation Unit Sulfur Recovery Unit (SRU) Selexol/Rectisol Green Liquor Scrubber Gas Cooler (Heat Exchangers)

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Summary of Calculation Capital cost adjusted from Eric Larson's A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Biomass Gasification Power Generation in the Pulp and Paper Industry Adjustment made with High Temp 2002$ expanded to 2008$ Scaled to Wauna particulars utilizing 6-tenths variable 2576.8 to

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