CSE 535 Mobile Computing Lecture 2: An Overview of Mobile Computing: Part I Motivation and Challenges

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CSE 535 – Mobile Computing Lecture 2: An Overview of Mobile Computing: Part I – Motivation and Challenges Sandeep K. S. Gupta School of Computing and Informatics Arizona State University

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Agenda Introduction to Mobile Computing Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networking and Applications

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Mobile Computing The requirement for "information anyplace anytime" has been a main thrust for the expanding development in Web and Internet innovation, remote correspondence, and versatile processing gadgets. The field of versatile processing is the merger of these advances in figuring and correspondence with the point of giving consistent and omnipresent registering environment for portable clients. Versatile processing systems are fundamental for empowering circulated and net-driven applications which require remote and pervasive data get to.

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Mobile Computing Challenges Mobile registering situations are described by extreme asset limitations and continuous changes in working conditions. This has prompted to numerous new and testing issues which traverse a few zones of software engineering, for example, consolidation of support for portability in system conventions, improvement of effective and versatile asset administration methods for remote transfer speed and battery control, foreseeing versatility designs, execution demonstrating and reproduction of versatile applications, and supporting portable ongoing mixed media applications.

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MC - Fundamentals Mobile Computing => Adaptive Computing and Communication Cross-Layer approach is requirement for Adaptation Conserving assets, for example, vitality Mobile registering is particular from conveyed figuring Mobile processing is a crucial segment of Ubiquitous figuring.

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Mobility and Adaptability Application QoS (re) negotitation System Fig: Dynamic Adaptation 6

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Example Adaptive Approaches Approach 1 : Combine arrangements with various optimality ranges/execution attributes. Approach 2 : Treat change in framework state as a transient blame and utilize the strategies of planning issue tolerant conventions Approach 3 : Dynamically screen the framework state and utilize the arrangement which is reasonable for the present framework state. Numerous others - … . 7

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Promises of Mobile Computing Global data administrations whenever from any area Mobile clients as incorporated purchasers and makers of information and data Ubiquitous figuring where versatile PCs turn into a necessary piece of every day exercises

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Mobile Applications Expected to make a whole new class of Applications new enormous markets in conjunction with the Web Mobile Information Appliances - consolidating individualized computing and buyer hardware Applications: Vertical: vehicle dispatching, following, purpose of offer, data benefit (business index), Law requirement Horizontal: mail empowered applications, separated data arrangement, cooperative registering…

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Vertical Applications l Serve a tight, specialty application space – Services dispatch (taxi, fire, police, trucking) – Sales following (purpose of offer, market patterns) – Mail and bundle following (messenger, postal) Relatively simple to actualize because of confinements and suspicions – homogeneous MUs – constrained quantities of clients

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Horizontal Applications Broad, space autonomous applications serving a mass-advertise – Electronic Mail and News – Yellow Pages Directory Services – Multimedia Merchant Catalogs – Digital Libraries – Location-based Information Filtering Driving power of portable processing research

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Medical Example 911 Call Ambulance arrives/withdraws Closest doctor's facility Access quiet records Send crucial signs Update tolerant records Page healing center staff Order therapeutic supplies

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Party on Friday Update Smart Phone's logbook with visitors names. Make a note to request nourishment from Dinner-on-Wheels. Redesign shopping list in view of the visitors drinking inclinations. Bear in mind to swipe that last container of lager's UPS mark. The shopping rundown is dependably forward.

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Party on Friday AutoPC recognizes a close Supermarket that promotes deals. It gets to the shopping list and your date-book on the Smart Phone. It advises you the pop and lager are at a bargain, and reminds you. that your next arrangement is in 60 minutes. There is sufficient time in view of the most recent movement report.

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Party on Friday TGIF… Smart Phone advises you that you have to request sustenance by twelve. It downloads the Dinner-on-Wheels menu from the Web on your PC with the visitors' inclinations stamped. It sends the shopping rundown to your CO-OP's PC. Everything will be conveyed when you return home at night.

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Wireless Networks

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Wireless Networks Cellular - GSM (Europe+), TDMA & CDMA (US) FM: 1.2-9.6 Kbps; Digital: 9.6-14.4 Kbps (ISDN-like administrations) Cellular Subscribers in the United States: 90,000 in 1984; 4.4 million in 1990; 13 million in 1994; 120 million in 2000; 187.6 million by 2004 (Cahner In-State Group Report). Handheld PC market will develop to $1.77 billion by 2002 Public Packet Radio - Proprietary 19.2 Kbps (crude), 9.6 Kbps (compelling) Private and Share Mobile Radio Paging Networks – regularly one-way correspondence low getting power utilization Satellites – wide-zone scope (GEOS, MEOS, LEOS) LEOS: 2.4 Kbps (uplink), 4.8Kbps (downlink)

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Wireless Networks (Cont.) Wireless Local Area Networks IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Standard based frameworks, e.g., Lucent WaveLan. Radio or Infrared frequencies: 1.2 Kbps-15 Mbps Packet Data Networks ARDIS RAM Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) Private Networks Public wellbeing, UPS.

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Wireless Local Area Network Data administrations: IP parcels Coverage Area: Offices, structures, grounds Roaming: Within sent frameworks Internet get to: by means of LAN. Sort of administrations: Data at close LAN speed.

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Wireless Characteristics Variant Connectivity Low transmission capacity and unwavering quality Frequent detachments unsurprising or sudden Asymmetric Communication Broadcast medium Monetarily costly Charges per association or per message/bundle Connectivity might be frail, discontinuous and costly

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Portable Information Devices PDAs, Personal Communicators Light, little and sturdy to be effortlessly conveyed stupid terminals [InfoPad, ParcTab projects], palmtops, wristwatch PC/Phone, walkstations keep running on AA+/Ni-Cd/Li-Ion batteries might be diskless I/O gadgets: Mouse is out, Pen is in remote association with data arranges either infrared or PDA specific HW (for pressure/encryption)

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Portability Characteristics Battery control confinements transmit/get, plate turning, show, CPUs, memory expend control Battery lifetime will see little build require vitality effective equipment (CPUs, memory) and framework programming arranged separations - snooze mode Power utilization versus asset usage

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Portability Characteristics Resource limitations Mobile PCs are asset poor Reduce program measure – decipher script dialects (Mobile Java?) Computation and correspondence stack can't be circulated similarly Small screen sizes Asymmetry amongst static and versatile PCs

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Mobility Characteristics Location changes area administration - cost to find is added to correspondence Heterogeneity in administrations transmission capacity confinements and inconstancy Dynamic replication of information and administrations take after clients Querying information - area based reactions Security and validation System arrangement is no more drawn out static

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What Needs to be Reexamined? Working frameworks File frameworks Database frameworks Programming Languages Communication engineering and conventions Hardware and design Real-Time, sight and sound, QoS Security Application necessities and plan

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Wireless Sensor Networking: Applications and Challenges Sandeep Gupta Arizona State University Based on Slides by Prof. Loren Schwiebert, CS, Wayne State University

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Wireless Sensor Node = Sensor + Actuator + ADC + Microprocessor + Powering Unit + Communication Unit (RF Transceiver) An impromptu system of self-fueled and self-arranging sensor hubs for all things considered detecting ecological information and performing information collection and incitation works dependably, effectively, and precisely . What is a Wireless Sensor Network? GPS Sensor Node

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Limitations of Wireless Sensors Wireless sensor hubs have numerous restrictions : Modest handling power – 8 MHz Very little stockpiling – a couple of hundred kilobits Short correspondence go – devours a great deal of force Small shape figure – a few mm 3 Minimal vitality – compels conventions Batteries have a limited lifetime Passive gadgets give little vitality

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Some Sample Applications Industrial and Commercial Uses Inventory Tracking – RFID Automated Machinery Monitoring Smart Home or Smart Office Energy Conservation Automated Lighting Military Surveillance and Troop Support Chemical or Biological Weapons Detection Enemy Troop Tracking Traffic Management and Monitoring

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Sensor-Based Visual Prostheses Retinal Implant Cortical Implant

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Organization into Ad Hoc Networks Individual sensors are entirely constrained . Maximum capacity is acknowledged just by utilizing an expansive number of sensors . Sensors are then sorted out into a specially appointed system. Require productive conventions to course and oversee information in this system.

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Why Wireless Sensors Now? Moore's Law is making adequate CPU execution accessible with low power prerequisites in a little size. Inquire about in Materials Science has brought about novel detecting materials for some Chemical, Biological, and Physical detecting assignments. Handsets for remote gadgets are getting to be littler, less costly, and less power hungry. Control source impr

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