Cosmology C12, Earth and Planetary Science C12, Letters and Science C70 The Planets

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Space science C12, Earth & Planetary Science C12, Letters & Science C70 The Planets Prof. Geoff Marcy Prof. Michael Manga Saturn's Moon, Dione Saturn & Ring Tu, Th 11-12:30 am LeConte 4

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Professors Michael Manga 177 McCone Hall manga@seismo.berkeley.edu (available time MWF 11:15-12:00) Geoff Marcy 417 Campbell Hall gmarcy@berkeley.edu (available time T,Th, 1pm) Departments of Earth & Planetary Science and Astronomy GSIs: Gilead Wurman gwurman@seismo.berkeley.edu Alyssa Sarid alyssa@eps.berkeley.edu Shuleen Martin smartin@astron.berkeley.edu J im Watkins jwatkins@berkeley.edu 8 Discussion Sections 1 hr each ( Start Next Week) Review, Clarification, Homework Help Sign up for Section on Telebears

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Text: The Cosmic Perspective Bennett et al. (2008) fifth Edition (Also: Used fourth Edition) Web Site on bspace: http://bspace.berkeley.edu Syllabus, Schedule & Lecture Figures Assignments: Reading, Homework , Observing Project Class Information

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Homework: half of your review 12 assignments amid semester Most inquiries from your content The Astronomy Learning Center (TALC): 264 Evans Time: Wed @ 6pm First homework set accessible Friday Due by Friday Feb 1 Turn in HW each Friday at twelve: Box marked Astro/EPS 12 in the storm cellar of Campbell Hall.

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Homework: You are urged to cooperate, however MUST turn in your own work, in your own words The graders can perceive duplicating, and answers found with Google Refer to the Berkeley Code of Student lead in the event that you are misty about what constitutes conning or written falsification

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Announcements No discourse segments this week Read Ch 1 of the content this week; Ch 2 by next First Homework Assignment: posted Friday.

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Last Time : The Solar System

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The Solar System Inner Solar System Outer Solar System

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Overview Our place in the Universe 13 billion Light Years

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The Solar System: Sun and 8 Planets Moons, Asteroids, Comets, and Dust

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Milky Way Galaxy 200 Billion Stars Photo taken from Earth You Are Here

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Our Sun moves with respect to alternate stars in the nearby Solar neighborhood. Our Sun and the stars circle around the focal point of the Milky Way Galaxy each 230 million years.

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Spiral Galaxies

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Elliptical Galaxies

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Irregular Galaxies

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The ``Local Group" of Galaxies 100,000 Light Years The Galactic Neighborhood

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The ``Local Group'' of Galaxies

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And outward… 10 Million Light Years

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The Universe: All matter and vitality > 100 Billion Galaxies

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Exponential documentation is convenient: 10 N x 10 M = 10 (N+M) Astronomical Numbers Best to utilize Exponential Notation 10 3 = 1000 Thousand 10 6 = 1,000,000 Million 10 9 = 1,000,000,000 Billion Also: 10 –3 = 1/1000 = 0.001 Example: 10 3 x 10 6 = 10 9 thousand million billion

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what number stars in our obvious Universe? 10 6 (1 million) 10 12 (1 million 10 18 (1 billion) 10 22 limitless

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The National Debt is $7.6 Trillion Federal Debt = $7.6 x 10 12 U.S. Populace = 300 x 10 6 Calculate Your Debt: $7.6 x 10 12/3 x 10 8 = $2.5 x 10 4 Trillions of Dollars $25,000 per individual 02 03 04 05 Debt Total

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Distance , time and number : Radius of our Galaxy: 6,000,000,000,000,000,000 m = Radius of a Hydrogen particle: 0.00000000005 m = Time for one vibration of an oxygen atom, O 2 : 0.00000000000001 s = Age of the Universe: 470,000,000,000,000,000 s = Scientific documentation: 6 x 10 18 m 0.5 x 10 –10 m 1 x 10 –14 s 4.7 x 10 17 s = 14 billion years

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SI (Systeme International) Units Base units: 1 meter ( m ) length ~ 3.3 ft 1 kilogram ( kg ) mass ~ 2.2 lb 1 second ( s ) time MKS System of units and measure

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SI (Systeme International) Units Base units: 1 meter ( m ) length 1 kilogram ( kg ) mass 1 second ( s ) time MKS System of units and measure Sometimes simpler to get different units from these: km, g, ms, µs, … km = 10 3 m kilo g = 10 - 3 kg kilo ms = 10 - 3 s milli µs = 10 - 6 s micro

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$ Billion blunder UNITS ARE IMPORTANT!!! Mars Climate Orbiter: Launch: 11 Dec. 1998 Orbit inclusion: 23 Sep. 1999 Followed by: Loss of Communication WHY? Neglected to change over from English units (inches, feet, pounds) to Metric units (MKS)

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Light sets aside opportunity to travel: 3 x 10 8 m/sec = 3 x 10 5 km/sec = 0.3 m/ns (1 ns = 10 - 9 s) Light Year = 9 trillion km = 6 trillion miles Light Hour Light Minutes are unit of Distance: How far Light Travels in that interim of time 1 light second = 3 x 10 5 km 1 light ns = 30 cm ≈ 1 foot

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NASA/JPL/Cornell Driving the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) How long does it bring to speak with the meanderers?

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How long does it take for radio waves (light) to achieve Mars? Under 1 second 10 seconds 5 minutes 1 day 1 year

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Powers of Ten "Grandiose Voyage" The Movie

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How to manage huge & little numbers Develop a helpful number-crunching Exponential documentation; change over between units Visualize utilizing a grouping of pictures (motion picture) Use distinctive successions Visualize by method for a scale show Try diverse models

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A Scaled Model of the Solar System 10 Billion x Smaller Sun's width: 14 x 10 cm (~ 10 6 miles) Scale 10 : 14 cm Earth breadth: 1.3 x 10 4 km 0.13 cm Jupiter's measurement: 150,000 km 1.5 cm Earth's separation from Sun: 1 "Cosmic Unit" = 1 "AU" = 1.5 x 10 8 km 10 Scaled Down "Sun" 14cm 1 AU ?? cm 0.15 cm 1.5 cm 15 cm 150 cm 1500 cm Ans: 1500 cm = 15 meters

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How extensive is the Solar System? We should see it to scale say the Sun is the measure of a vast grapefruit, 15 cm (6 inches) - then:

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Planet dist (AU) Scaled dist (m) Where? Mercury 0.4 6 6 pushes back Venus 0.7 10 10 columns Earth 1.0 15 15 lines Mars 1.5 22 22 lines Jupiter 5 75 3/4 football field away Saturn 10 150 1.5 football field away Uranus 20 300 Sproul Plaza Neptune 30 450 Bancroft Ave Pluto 50 750 Durant Ave Oort Cloud 50,000 5 x 10 5 Oakland

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You Are Here: Earth's Orbit Uranus o Saturn o Jupiter o . 100 m Neptune o

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How Far is the Nearest Star? Closest Grapefruit: In Washington D.C. Alpha Centauri Grapefruit-sized Sun in Berkeley Scales to: 4 x 10 6 m (~ 3000 mi) d = 4 light years = 4 x 10 16 m

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How old is the Universe? The Cosmic Calendar if the whole age of the Universe would one say one were logbook year one month would be roughly 1 billion genuine years

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Key Issues So Far: What does our nearby planetary group look like when seen to scale? How far away are the stars? How do human time scales contrast with the age of the Universe?

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TODAY'S LECTURE Solar System Resides inside our Milky Way Galaxy Ranges of separations and time are colossal. Exponential documentation and models are a genuine Help! Separate Units: 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) = Earth - Sun Distance = 93 million miles = 150 million km

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What is the birthplace of the Universe? The two least complex molecules (H and He) were made amid the Big Bang . More perplexing particles were made in stars. At the point when the star kicks the bucket, synthetic components are removed into space… . to shape new stars and planets! The greater part of the iotas in our bodies were made in the center of a star!

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The Universe in a Day Look at the whole history of the Universe as if it occurred in a solitary day. The present is at the stroke of midnight toward the end of that day. Since it is around 13.5 billion years of age, every hour will be ~0.5 billion years. A million years takes barely 7 seconds. The Big Bang (a thick, hot blast) and the arrangement of H and He all occur in the principal nanosecond. The Universe gets to be straightforward in around 2 seconds. The principal stars and universes show up after around 2am. O ur Galaxy shapes at 4am. Eras of stars are conceived and kick the bucket.

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The Universe in a Day The Solar System does not shape until 3pm. The primary life (bacterial) shows up on the Earth by 4pm. Our air starts to have free oxygen at 7 or 8 pm, and this advances the improvement of animals which can move all the more forcefully and eat each other. Life does not start to go up against complex structures (multicellular) until 10:45pm. It moves onto arrive at 11:10. The dinosaurs show up at around 11:40, and get to be terminated at 11:52. Pre-human primates show up at around 14 seconds before midnight, and all of written history happens in the last 70 milliseconds. Looking to the future, we can expect the Universe of stars to continue for in any event one more thousand years (utilizing a similar time pressure calculate). After that, there are different periods of the Universe (not overwhelmed by stars), which become colder and more unusual, and happen on astronomica

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