COSC1557: Prologue to Figuring

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COSC1557: Introduction to Computing Haibin Zhu, PhD. AssistProfessor Department of Computer Science Nipissing University (C) 2002

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Instructor Haibin Zhu, Ph. D. Right hand Professor, Department of CS and Math, Nipissing University Room: A124A Ext.: 4434 Email: URL: Office Hour: Mon.–Fri. 2:30pm-4:30pm, and by arrangement

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Nature and employments of the PC , calculations , number frameworks, data representation; and association, with a diagram of PC equipment and programming, registering frameworks and significant applications. Moral and societal issues circular segment talked about. A prologue to abnormal state dialects with an accentuation on composing programs in C++. Course Description

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Textbook and references Textbook: Joel Adams and Larry Nyhoff, C++: An Introduction to Computing, 3/e. Prentice Hall, © 2003 ISBN: 0-13-091426-6 Lecture Notes on Supplements: CD-Lab Manual (ISBN: 013080648X) Some Lab:

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Beginning Snapshots Chapter 0

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Objectives Give a review of software engineering Show its broadness Provide setting for software engineering ideas Events from the past Describe fundamental segments, association of a PC

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Algorithms and Data Structures Architecture Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Database and Information Retrieval Human-Computer Communication Numerical and Symbolic Computation Operating Systems Programming Languages Software Methodology and Engineering Social and Professional Context Areas of Computer Science

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Important Concepts in Computer History The component of number juggling The put away program The graphical UI The PC arrange

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First-Generation Computers Vacuum tube computers 1945-1956 ENIAC 1943-1946 John Von Neumann's "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC" 1945 First bug in a computer 1945 UNIVAC 1951

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Second Generation Computers Used transistors 1956-1963 FORTRAN 1957 IBM 7090 1958 LISP COBOL 1960 ALGOL 60

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Third-Generation Computers Chips and Integrated Circuits 1964-1971 The IBM System/360 1964 The PDP-8 1965 Douglas Englebart: the mouse, Two-D show, altering, hypermedia, 1968 Pascal Ken Thompson: UNIX 1969 ARPANET – The start of the Internet

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Fourth-Generation Computers Intel 4004 Chip 1971 Dennis Richie: C 1973 Ethernet Court rules Atanasoff was legitimate creator of first electronic computerized PC Altair, BASIC, Apple 1 1974 Apple II, Cray 1, Apple Corp. Microsoft Corp. 1976 IBM PC 1981

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Fourth-Generation Computers Bjarne Stroustrup: C++ 1983 Novell reports Netware TCP/IP Macintosh 1984 Windows 1985 Intel 386 Chip 1986 Tim Berners—Lee: WWW 1991 Linux 1992

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Fourth-Generation Computers Pentium chips, Power PC chip 1993 MOSAIC, Apple Newton Netscape Navigator 1.0, Yahoo! 1994 Palm figuring James Gosling: JAVA 1995 Windows 95, Internet Explorer, Internet goes business Windows 98, Apple's IMAC 1998 Microsoft's court case

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Fourth-Generation Computers Y2K Problem, Powermac G4 1999 Windows 2000 2000 1 GHZ processors Mac OS X 2001 Windows XP Quantum Computer 2002

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Graphical User Interface Command line interface required exact and enigmatic charges Xerox PARK had created GUI model in 1972 Steve Jobs saw it quite a while later and utilized new equipment capacities to actualize GUI makes PC simple to utilize

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Network Defn: at least two PCs associate with trade assets Processing power Storage Access to a printer Software assets Messages

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Network Time partaking in mid 1960s Users speak with host PC ARPANET associated inquire about focus PCs in 1969 Eventually formed into Internet Local Area Network equipment and working frameworks grew late 1970s ISPs now reasonable, broadly accessible for even home PCs

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Computer Organization Hardware and Software Calvin College

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Computing Systems Computers have two sorts of segments: Hardware , comprising of its physical gadgets (CPU, memory, transport, stockpiling gadgets, ...) Software , comprising of the projects it has (Operating framework, applications, utilities, ...)

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Hardware: CPU Central Processing Unit (CPU): the "cerebrum" of the machine(?) area of hardware that performs math and coherent ML proclamations estimation: speed (generally) in megahertz (a great many clock-ticks every second) illustrations: Intel Pentium(PI, PII, PIII, P4), AMD K6, Motorola PowerPC, Sun SPARC,

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Hardware: RAM Random Access Memory (RAM) "primary" memory, which is quick, however unstable ... practically equivalent to a man's fleeting memory. numerous small "on-off" switches: for comfort "on" is spoken to by 1, "off" by 0. every switch is known as a b inary burrow it , or bit . 8 bits is known as a byte . 2 10 bytes =1024 bytes is known as a kilobyte (1K) 2 20 bytes is known as a megabyte (1M).

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Hardware (Disk) Secondary Memory (Disk): Stable stockpiling utilizing attractive or optical media. Comparable to a man's long haul memory. Slower to access than RAM. Cases: floppy circle (measured in kilobytes) hard plate (measured in gigabytes (2 30 bytes)) CD-ROM (measured in megabytes), ...

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Hardware: the Bus The Bus: Connects CPU to other equipment gadgets. Similar to a man's spinal line. Speed measured in megahertz (like the CPU), however ordinarily much slower than the CPU... The bottleneck in the vast majority of today's PCs.

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Hardware: Cache While getting to RAM is speedier than getting to optional memory, it is still entirely moderate, in respect to the rate at which the CPU runs. To go around this issue, most frameworks add a quick reserve memory to the CPU, to store as of late utilized directions and information. (Supposition: Since such guidelines/information were required as of late, they will be required again sooner rather than later.)

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CPU Main Memory Secondary Memory reserve Bus Hardware: Summary Putting the pieces together: Programs are put away (long haul) in optional memory, and stacked into primary memory to keep running, from which the CPU recovers and executes their announcements.

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Disk CPU RAM Cache OS Bus Software: OS The working framework (OS) is stacked from optional memory into primary memory when the PC is turned on, and stays in memory until the PC is killed.

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Software: OS The OS goes about as the "director" of the framework, ensuring that every equipment gadget interfaces easily with the others. It additionally gives the interface by which the client cooperates with the PC, and anticipates client input if no application is running. Cases: Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows-NT, UNIX, Linux, Solaris, MacOS, ...

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Software: Applications are non-OS programs that play out some helpful errand, including word processors, spreadsheets, databases, web programs, C++ compilers, ... Case C++ compilers/situations: CodeWarrior (MacOS, Win95, WinNT, Solaris) GNU C++ (UNIX, Linux) Turbo/Borland C++ (Win95, WinNT) Visual C++ (Win95, WinNT)

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Software: User Programs that are neither OS programs nor applications are called client programs. Client projects are what you'll be writing in this course.

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Disk CPU RAM Cache OS App Bus Putting it every single together Program and applications that are not running are put away on plate.

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Disk CPU RAM Cache OS App Bus Putting it all together When you dispatch a program, the OS controls the CPU and burdens the program from plate to RAM.

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Disk CPU RAM Cache OS App Bus Putting everything together The OS then gives up the CPU to the program, which starts to run.

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The Fetch-Execute Cycle As the program runs, it over and again brings the following guideline (from memory/reserve), executes it, and stores any outcomes back to memory. Plate CPU RAM Cache OS App Bus That's every one of the a PC fetches: execute-store, a great many times every second !

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What is Programming? An arrangement of articulations that educate a PC in how to take care of an issue is known as a program . The demonstration of planning, composing and keeping up a program is called programming . Individuals who compose projects are called software engineers .

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What sorts of explanations do PCs get it? A PC just comprehends machine dialect articulations. A machine dialect explanation is a succession of zeros that cause the PC to play out a specific activity, for example, include, subtract, increase, ...

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Machine Language (ML) ML proclamations are put away in a PC's memory, which is a grouping of switches. For accommodation of representation, an "on" switch is spoken to by 1, and an "off" switch is spoken to by 0. ML along these lines seems, by all accounts, to be parallel (base-2): 0010111010110101

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Early Computers ... required a software engineer to write in ML... Simple to commit errors! Such errors are elusive! Not versatile - just keeps running on one sort of machine! Writing computer programs was exceptionally troublesome!

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Assembler ADD 0010111010110101 A Bright Idea Devise an arrangement of shortenings (mental aides) relating to the ML explanations, in addition to a program to make an interpretation of them into ML. The contractions are a low level computing construct , and the program is called a constructing agent .

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Assembly Languages Allowed a developer to utilize memory aides, which were more common than double. Much less demanding to peruse programs Much less demanding to discover and alter botches Still not versatile to various machines

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High Level Languages Devise an arrangement of articulations that are near human dialect (if, while, do,