Coordination of Fish and Shrimp Culture into Large-Scale Irrigation Projects

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Presentation. Aquaculture is the quickest developing segment underway farming in the US and worldwide.Aquatic plants and creatures are just now being domesticated.US industry is predominated by aquaculture in Asia, Europe and Latin America.. Presentation. Mix of aquaculture and agribusiness in not another concept.Fish/rice, fish/vegetable, fish/duck and fish/pig frameworks in Eastern Asia are hundr

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´╗┐Incorporation of Fish and Shrimp Culture into Large-Scale Irrigation Projects Kevin Fitzsimmons, Ph.D. Natural Research Lab Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science University of Arizona Oct. 20, 2000

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Introduction Aquaculture is the quickest developing segment underway agribusiness in the US and around the world. Amphibian plants and creatures are just now being trained. US industry is predominated by aquaculture in Asia, Europe and Latin America.

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Introduction Integration of aquaculture and farming in not another idea. Angle/rice, angle/vegetable, angle/duck and fish/pig frameworks in Eastern Asia are many years old. These profoundly effective frameworks and the solid weight control plans they deliver are the essential explanation behind the high populaces in East and South Asia.

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Introduction However, a significant number of these coordinated frameworks rely on upon creature and generally, on human squanders as manure. In numerous nations, utilization of creature squanders to treat angle frameworks won't be acknowledged. Various utilization of water system water is an uncommon instance of reconciliation that stays away from this circumstance.

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Introduction Irrigated agribusiness has been a focal piece of the "Green Revolution". Water system ought to be a piece of the "Blue Revolution". A large number of hectares are watered around the world. The vast majority of this water is in a perfect world suited for aquaculture.

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Introduction Water is as of now controlled. Either pumped from groundwater or occupied from normal or man-made waterways. Repositories and channel structures are perfect areas for fish culture. Water is as a rule of high caliber, frequently from an indistinguishable source from drinking water. Most water fit for drinking as well as farming, is fine for fish.

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Typical water system plans

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Cages in Irrigation Reservoirs 100 m 2 confines in Philippines

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Can work w/huge pens Good water quality Need vessel to take fish Can develop expansive amounts Easy to lose bunches of fish Subject to outside contamination Easy access by open Capital & allowing costs Pro's and con's of pens in supplies

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Production in Main Canals

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Main Canals (3000 cfs)

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Good water movement and quality Easy get to One administration element Water intrusions are uncommon as well as booked Management may not be intrigued Water movement might be intemperate Poaching High cost of pens Water might be interfered with Pro's and con's of pens in primary waterways

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Modified conveyance channels In-line or parallel raceways for fish generation Raceways in Arizona Raceways in Mexico

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Better control of water and get to Adjustable stream rates Can change creation framework Higher costs Less weakening ability Difficult to dry down May be on water system locale arrive, not on-ranch Pro's and con's of altered conveyance trenches

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Diversions from well or conveyance waterway Tanks in Arizona Ponds in Costa Rica

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On homestead stockpiling lakes Growing in lakes or pens in lakes. Repository lake in Arizona Farm lake in Brazil

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Multiple utilization Better control of water and get to Some essential profitability Low cost Cages are anything but difficult to add Moderate cost to construct lakes Must keep some water in lakes, hard to dry down Pro's and con's of on homestead stockpiling lakes

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Cages in conveyance trench

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Easy gather Better control of water and get to Adjustable stream rates Easy poaching Flow rates variable Less weakening ability Need for dry down Pro's and con's of pens in conveyance trench

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Production specifically in conveyance trench

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Easy collect Better control of water and get to Adjustable stream rates Easy poaching Flow rates variable Less weakening capacity Need for dry down Easy to get over-shower and other contamination Pro's and con's of developing in conveyance trench

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Cages in seepage jettison

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Water is "free" No limitations on utilize Nutrient rich Drain channels = Pollution Nutrients from fish are "squandered" Pro's and Con's of developing in waste waterways - "The Egypt Problem"

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Species delivered Shrimp, trout, tilapia, catfish, grass carp and numerous different species can be developed in water system water.

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Research Projects Effluent administration Integration of aquaculture and farming Shrimp creation Tilapia generation

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Research - Effluent administration Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO's) Aquaculture operations delivering 50,000 + lbs for each year, with release to waters of the U.S. are viewed as CAFO's (CWA, Section 318) CAFO controls are created by the states and checked on by the EPA . EPA is thinking about new aquaculture industry particular directions

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Research - Effluent administration EPA is in procedure of controlling all aquaculture squanders Field edit water system is acknowledged as a "Best Management Practice" by a few states Global Aquaculture Alliance and others advance different utilize. EPA control drafts will be discharged for open remark in 2001.

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Pond culture to cotton water system

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Research Projects - Integration of aquaculture and agribusiness Experimental work at MAC and Safford Irrigate cotton crops with water from catfish lakes and well water Measure contrasts in water quality, nitrogen necessities & cotton yield Determine financial effect

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Research Projects - Integration of aquaculture and farming First utilization of water for broad lake culture. Lake loaded with well water. Catfish supplied at 7,000 kg/ha Second use to inundate and treat cotton. Reproduced plots inundated with well water and lake water.

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Results - Integration of aquaculture and agribusiness Water pH lessened from 8.3 to 8.0 Added 19.7 kg/ha N to 45 kg/ha utilized as a part of standard preparation plan.

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Results - Integration of aquaculture and horticulture Contributed 2.6 kg/ha P to edit.

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Results - Integration of aquaculture and horticulture: No critical contrast in cotton yield. Require extra trials with less synthetic compost application. No negative effects on soils. Part cost of water results in reserve funds to agriculturists ($120/ha).

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Results - Integration of aquaculture and horticulture: Other expected advantages (more tests expected to affirm & evaluate): 1. Moderate arrival of natural squanders as compost. 2. Less possibility of nitrates relocating to groundwater. 3. Increment soil tilth (soil dampness limit).

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Shrimp and Irrigated Agriculture Shrimp Tilapia Seaweed Halophytes Puerto Pe├▒asco, Mexico

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Use of inland saline waters for "marine" species and water system Enormous amounts of "low quality" groundwater in the Western US. A lot of this water is poor quality geothermal. A few has been utilized for ordinary water system before. Penaeid shrimp, redfish, shellfish, ocean growth have been developed in-land.

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Environmental limitations on routine shrimp culture Loss of mangroves and other waterfront vegetation.

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Environmental limitations on routine shrimp culture Effluents and supplement advancement Impacts (genuine and envisioned) on wild shrimp and different species (sicknesses, fascinating species, hereditary defilement). Changes in estuarine stream designs.

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Low saltiness inland shrimp culture Florida, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Mexico, Colima; Aquagranjas Thailand, various India, Andhra Pradesh Texas: numerous ranches and Texas A&M Arizona: Gila Bend, Hyder, & Aztec Farms University of Arizona

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Inland shrimp creation All sorts of frameworks can be incorporated with water system. Escalated lakes Extensive lakes Intensive raceways

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Source groundwater Low (1-2 ppt or 1000 - 2000 ppm TDS). Med (3-5 ppt or 3000 - 5000 ppm TDS) Low can be utilized on traditional yields. Medium saltiness emanating constitutes a transfer issue. Medium saltiness emanating can be utilized for green growth culture, kelp, halophyte crops.

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Shrimp in inland waters Low saltiness can be utilized on certain traditional harvests with appropriate development methods . Sorghum Olives

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Research Project - Shrimp emanating on products Wood Brothers Farm in Gila Bend, AZ 12 hectares of lakes, one nursery Stocking Litopenaeus vannamei 35 shrimp/m 2 @ 0.4 g Feed - Rangen Aeration Paddlewheels Diffusers

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RESULTS Gila Bend, Low saltiness Water trade: 10-15% Survival 70% Harvest following 95 days, @ 21 g Yield 7,500 kg/ha 12 ha of lakes Effluent utilized on olives, sorghum, cotton

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RESULTS Gila Bend, Low saltiness Preliminary information (summer 2000): 0.07 mg/L NH 3, 0.321 mg/L NO 2 , 21.2 mg/L NO 3 , 0.17 mg/L add up to P Fertilizer esteem around 43 kg/ha N and 0.34 kg/ha P

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RESULTS Gila Bend, Low saltiness Algae blossom more normal for freshwater wholesome incentive for shrimp should be examined Problems Hemocytic enteritis Gill fouling

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RESULTS Aztec Farm, Medium saltiness Stocking L. vannamei, L. stylirostris 5 to 10 shrimp/m 2 @ PL 20 Feed - Rangen Water trade: restricted Aeration:none

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RESULTS 1999 Aztec, Medium saltiness Survival L. vannamei, L. stylirostris 10 to 30% 3 grams for each week at one point Harvest following 120 days, @ 10 - 20 g Yield - 20,000 kg normal = 1,000 kg/ha 20 ha of lakes 2000 outcomes are accounted for to be better

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Conclusions Shrimp can be created in low saltiness groundwater. Business amounts can be delivered. Low saltiness gushing waters can be utilized for ordinary field crops. Medium saltiness profluent can be utilized for halophyte crops. Manageability won't be exhibited until salt levels in soils are tried following quite a long while of water system.

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Conclusions Markets are set up to pay a premium for new, privately developed shrimp. Gainfulness will be dete

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