Convergences The Political Economy of Race and Class in the United States

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I. Characterizing Race and Class. A. Minimal hereditary fluctuation exists in humans1. Why? Bottleneck 100,000

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Convergences The Political Economy of Race and Class in the United States

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I. Characterizing Race and Class A. Minimal hereditary change exists in people 1. Why? Bottleneck 100,000 – 200,000 years prior 2. Movement: "The Urge to Merge" 3. Result: We all have about a similar arrangement of progenitors in 1000 BC (everybody alive now is plummeted from everybody alive then, however in various extents) B. Race not naturally huge all things considered: Two arbitrary individuals of the SAME race have 90% the same number of hereditary contrasts as two irregular individuals of DIFFERENT races

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C. "Race" is a Social Category 1. Nationality as Race: "How the Irish Became White" 2. Family as Race: "One Drop" 3. Multiracial Classification: Breaking Down Categories

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D. What is Social Class? Common Criteria: Income, Wealth, Power Prestige occupations They Pay More They Require More Education They Entail More Abstract Thought They Offer Greater Autonomy

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E. Intersectionality This term alludes to courses in which distinctive sorts of divisions or separation may strengthen each other Example: Race and Class Racial stereotyping denies financial open doors  bring down wages People with lower wages can't live in pleasant neighborhoods  lodging isolation Poor neighborhoods have more wrongdoing  racial stereotyping of their inhabitants Implication: If race and class divisions fortify each other, handling one will be troublesome without handling the other

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II. Clarifying Income Inequality: Intersectionality or Something Else?

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A. Unemployment: What clarifies the racial hole?

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1. Name Discrimination "White" names around half more prone to be called for meetings than "Dark" names Sample stereotyped names:

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2. Questioner Bias Identical capabilities  Whites normally procured Identical articulations  Whites saw as less forceful Experiments: Interviewer race influences assessment of capabilities (conditions versus moral duty)

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B. Instruction 1. It is important, however can't clarify entire pay hole

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2. Domino Effect: College Education Reinforces Class Divisions

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C. Seen Workplace Racism: A Problem for Free Markets

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D. Slants in Income Inequality

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1. Late Growth: A rising tide that lifts a few water crafts speedier than others. Why?

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2. Correlation: US versus World Gini coefficient (a measure of disparity): higher numbers mean more imbalance

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3. Expanding disparity is generally new – little change for 35-year time frame

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III. Riches Inequality: Obstacles to Social Mobility

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A. How Do Families Accumulate Wealth? 1. Hypothesis from Classical Economics Savings, Wise Investment, Hard Work Life Cycle 2. Institutional Accumulation: Wealth exchanged through lawful channels 2/3 of Middle Class Wealth is Home Equity: Homestead Acts, FHA, Home Mortgage Interest Deductions advance this type of riches

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A. How Do Families Accumulate Wealth? 1. Hypothesis from Classical Economics Savings, Wise Investment, Hard Work Life Cycle 2. Institutional Accumulation: Wealth exchanged through legitimate channels 2/3 of Middle Class Wealth is Home Equity: Homestead Acts, FHA, Home Mortgage Interest Deductions advance this type of riches Education: Land Grant Colleges, GI Bill, Subsidized Student Loans, " In Vivo " riches exchanges from guardians Retirement Accounts: Federal projects, appropriations, and assessment credits for annuities and reserve funds

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B. Legacy and "Sedimentation" Wealth exchanges propagate "sedimentation" of imbalance – suggests that authentic separation makes disparities that continue even after segregation closes. Two essential components: 1. Legacy Whites 4 times as prone to Inherit; Typical Inheritance for Whites=$10,000; African-Americans=$800 2. In Vivo exchanges (Down installments; Education and College Tuition) - Today, a great many people pass their dispensable substantial riches to their kids amid life by training uses ( not by will or legacy). Other in vivo exchanges: Life protection Joint occupancy Pensions

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C. Delicacy: Small Assets Dissipate During Recessions Example: During the 2001 subsidence and "jobless recuperation," Latino and African-American families lost more than one-fourth of their riches while the abundance of white families developed gradually, 2 percent.

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D. Class Mobility in America: Is Inequality the Future? 1. "The high cost of being poor." Without funds (riches) or credit (identified with riches and pay): No store – Funnels individuals to lease by-the-week motels, more costly than lofts (generally because of nourishment costs) Higher utility and different stores Bank shortage: Reliance on cash orders, registration offices, payday moneylenders, pawn shops, lease to-claim furniture and machines Higher expenses for basic supplies (no uber stores), clothing, gas Car buys, advances, protection much higher for poor, notwithstanding controlling for driving record

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2. Intergenerational Mobility a. Definition: Probability kids will have diverse relative wage than guardians

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b. Incline: Shrinking

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E. Riches Gap is Intersectional: Both Class and Race Matter 1. Versatility higher for poor white youngsters than poor African-American kids

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2. Total assets Gap Unlikely to Close Soon

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IV. Lodging and Spatial Inequality The spatial disparity proposition: Social and racial imbalances are "topographically engraved" (associated with area) Government arrangement decides topography of disparity (which is not really "regular" or "unbiased") Implication: Political choices about lodging and land utilize can increment or lessening both racial and class imbalance. As usual, legislative issues makes victors and washouts…

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B. Home Ownership 1. Exhibit Day Institutional Discrimination: Homeownership and Assets a. Contracts: Blacks have 60% higher Rejection Rate versus salary/resource practically identical Whites b. Financing costs: Blacks Pay More (About 1/3 of 1%) Translates into $12,000 More for Typical Home more than 30 years

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c. Subprime Loans Racial crevice in loaning – even affluent African-American borrowers get high-hazard credits

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2. Loaning Gap Widens Pre-Existing Wealth Gaps

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3. Home Ownership Gap Persists

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C. "Spatial Racism" - De Facto Segregation 1. Diminishing yet at the same time high 2. More pervasive in North 3. Causes: a. Fracture: Smaller school areas and regulatory units Milwaukee, the most  isolated city in America

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b. Government Policy "Spatial Racism" strengthened by: Zoning laws avert reasonable lodging in numerous rural areas Housing strategies focus financed lodging Municipalities finance the migration of organizations out of the city Transportation spending favors interstates, metropolitan development and urban sprawl Court choices avoid metropolitan school integration School subsidizing is attached to property charges

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c. Progressing Housing Discrimination for Renters

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Evidence: HDS 2000 Report 4,600 matched analyzers, one minority and the other white Pose as generally indistinguishable homeseekers and ask about accessibility of publicized lodging units Identifying segregation: White analyzers recounted accessible units when African-Americans not told: 12.3% of the time African-American analyzers recounted accessible units when Whites not told: 8.3% of the time Inference: If test size is sufficiently huge, separation rate of 4% against African-Americans on this measurement Many measurements amassed together to give add up to rate of lodging separation: whether permitted to investigate loft/house, cited lease/value, lease motivating forces, and so on

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Other discoveries Systematic "directing" observed: Whites liable to be prescribed houses in white neighborhoods, minorities in minority neighborhoods (recollect, pay/business and so on is indistinguishable) Effect is most grounded when more established specialists experienced – steady with preference theory Interesting: Austin singled out as surprisingly liable to produce victimization both Latinos and African-Americans (just metro territory with this "refinement")

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d. Individual Choice?

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4. Impacts of Segregation Educational disparity: Inter-locale transporting precluded Also strengthens other spatial imbalances (maps them to racial limits)

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D. Sprawl, Fragmentation and Housing Opportunity for the Poor Zoning: Suburban controls drive up the cost of lodging and cutoff rental lodging New lodging gets to be excessively expensive to low wage occupants Disinvestment in the internal city diminishes the advantage esteem (riches) of property holders in inward city neighborhoods

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Example: Zoning and Housing Opportunity in Columbus, OH Suburban part estimate necessities in the Columbus rural areas drive up the cost of lodging Result: >90% of new single-family homes manufactured 2000-2002 not reasonable to >75% of African American and Latino families

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2. "Work Sprawl" Jobs have moved far from the work pool in numerous metropolitan zones, making associating work seekers with occupations a test which is intensified by poor open transportation 40% of every rural occupation can't be come to by open transportation Public venture lopsidedly supports thruways over open transportation

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Spatial Mismatch: Job Growth & Public Transit in Baltimore "Work Sprawl" additionally corresponds with more noteworthy isolation for African Americans from business

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E. Opportunity Segregation: Cumulative Impact of Sprawl, Fragmentation and "Spatial Racism" Low salary inhabitants isolated from circumstances, for example, Good schools, me