Consideration II Selective Attention Visual Search

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What is gone to?. Area based speculations: we take care of districts of visual fieldSpotlight hypothesis (Posner) a hypothesis which holds that we can move our consideration around to concentrate on different parts of our visual fieldSpotlight is not as a matter of course at area of the fovea: spotlight can move without eye developments. Item based hypotheses: we take care of articles.

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Consideration II Selective Attention & Visual Search

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What is gone to? Area based speculations: we take care of districts of visual field Spotlight hypothesis (Posner) a hypothesis which holds that we can move our consideration around to concentrate on different parts of our visual field Spotlight is not really at area of the fovea: spotlight can move without eye developments. Question based hypotheses: we take care of articles

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Posner Cueing Task Central signal fringe prompt Posner exhibited either a focal sign or a fringe signal before an objective showed up Cues legitimate on 80% of the trials, invalid on 20% of the trials or the other way around prompt ISI target

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Posner Cueing Task Central sign fringe signal ISI target Peripheral Cue condition triggers exogenous consideration: Bottom-up i.e. jolt driven Central Cue condition triggers endogenous consideration: deliberate consideration Top-down

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Endogenous Cueing Task

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Endogenous Cueing Task

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Components of Attention The discoveries from patients with mind harm drove Posner to develop a model for consideration that includes three separate mental operations: withdrawing of consideration from the present area moving thoughtfulness regarding another area connecting with consideration in another area to encourage handling in that area.

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Experiment: are number of knocks on the closures of the items the same? Speedier judgments when knocks are on a similar protest (notwithstanding marginally bigger separation) good with a question based consideration hypothesis Alternative hypothesis: consideration is question based

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We can choose a shape notwithstanding when it is interlaced among other comparable shapes Are the green things the same? On an unexpected test toward the end, subjects were not ready to review shapes that had been available however had not been gone to in the errand  Evidence for question based consideration

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Object-Based Attention

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Object-Based Attention FFA = fusiform face range PPA = parahippocampal put region

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Object-Based Attention

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Visual Search

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Examples of Visual Search Is there a risk? Where's Waldo?

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Search times can be affected by set size is there a dark circle ?

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T O T T Simple element scan Look for an "O"

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T O T O T O T O T O T O T O T O T O T O T Simple element Look for something red

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T O T O T O T O T O T O T O T O T O T O T O T O Conjunctive component scan Look for something red AND "O"

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Conjunctive Search Response Time Simple element seek Number of Stimuli in Display

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Feature-combination hypothesis Treisman & Gelade (1980) Different visual elements are coded in parallel in independent element maps. Visual hunt is simple ("fly out") when it includes just a solitary element that can be registered by an element outline no consideration is required, i.e., inquiry is preattentive  parallel pursuit introduction measure shading E.g., locate the blue circle:

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Visual inquiry turns out to be more troublesome when conjunctions of components are included Theory expresses that consideration is required on a specific area to orchestrate its elements into a protest Attentional spotlight must be sent locally  v iewer must apply serial inquiry Conjunction seek e.g., is there is red circle?

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Feature seek asymmetries It is less demanding to discover X among Ys than Y among Xs if X has an additional component contrasted with Y. Discover the Q Find the O Q O Q O Q O Q O Q O Q O Q O Q O Q O Q O Q

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Illusory conjunctions Prediction of hypothesis: if consideration can conjoin includes effectively, the absence of consideration can prompt to off base (deceptive) conjunctions? Perused the vertical line of digits in the accompanying showcase For unattended areas, subjects may report fanciful conjunctions of elements, e.g. blue "O" Snyder, 1972; Treisman & Schmidt, 1982

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Problem for Feature Integration Theory X O X O X O X O X Some conjunctions are simple and deliver quick inquiry times. (e.g. Theeuwes and Kooi, 1994)

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Guided Search Guided hunt model is an adjustment of highlight combination hypothesis Separate procedures look for Xs and for white things (since they are the objective elements), and there is a subsequent territory of twofold enactment that attracts thoughtfulness regarding the objective. X O X O X O X O X (Wolfe, 2003)

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Selective Auditory Attention

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Dichotic tuning in/Shadowing assignments

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What overcomes? What happens to unattended message? Very little, we appear to recall for the most part low-level data (human voice or not, changes in sex, not an adjustment in dialect) (Colin Cherry) a similar word can be rehashed without being seen (Moray, 1959)

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Broadbent's Filter Theory Sensory data is prepared until a bottleneck is achieved One of the sources of info is then permitted through a channel on the premise of its physical qualities, with the other information staying in the cushion for later handling Early determination hypothesis

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Problem for early choice speculations People see their own particular name at gatherings: mixed drink party impact Experiment:  Some semantic handling in unattended ear … Treisman (1960)

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Treisman's Attenuation hypothesis Messages are constricted however not sifted on the premise of physical attributes Semantic criteria can apply to all messages, lessened or not Semantic criteria are harder to apply to weakened messages, yet at the same time conceivable