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Slide 1

Congress Theories of Representation

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Today Bare-bones nuts and bolts of Congress What does it intend to "speak to" somebody (or some gathering) politically? What variables figure out who speaks to us in Congress?

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House 435 Representatives 1 for each geographic area 2 year terms Senate 100 Senators 2 for every state 6 year terms Bicameral Legislature

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Business of Congress A Day in the House of Reps http://clerk.house.gov/

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What Does Representation Mean? "Speak to": to act set up of or for the benefit of another person "Voting public": the gathering on whose sake the official demonstrations

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Three Big Questions About Representation Does the possibility of vote based representation permit lawmakers to do what is beneficial for us, instead of what we need? Ought to individuals from Congress serve as "representatives" or as "trustees"? Whose "best advantages" matter? Is "office representation" enough, or is "sociological representation" fundamental?

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Theories of Representation: Delegate v. Trustee Delegate: Someone who acts as per our desires Trustee: Someone who acts to best ensure our interests (regardless of the possibility that we're not content with it) Example: Balancing the financial plan and raising charges

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Theories of Representation: The Importance of "Voting demographic" If administrators are acting to our greatest advantage, who has standing? Just voters in the lawmaker's area? Everybody in the administrator's area, both sides, voters and non-voters? The country all in all? Case: "pork barrel enactment"

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Theories of Representation: Descriptive v. Substantive Ways of making "arrangement compatibility" (appoint representation) Descriptive Shared foundation and experience = shared political inclinations Substantive (Agency) Electoral responsibility is sufficient to compel approach harmoniousness

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But . . . Is appointive weight enough to constrain arrangement compatibility, or is graphic representation essential for genuine representation? Are there advantages to graphic representation that stretch out past arrangement results?

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Who Represents Us: Important Factors to Remember Who runs Access to cash Access to bolster Time and "social capital" Incumbency advantage Money Name acknowledgment and body electorate benefit Controversy over term limits – U.S. Term Limits v. Thornton Redistricting The specialty of the "gerrymander"

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Redistricting: The Original Gerrymander

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Redistricting When and why Every 10 years (now – Baker v. Carr) – taking after REAPPORTIONMENT because of legitimate difficulties

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Redistricting How it's done Political gerrymandering – favoring the gathering in power in the state lawmaking body Racial gerrymandering – endeavors to increment or farthest point the impact of racial minorities

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Racial Gerrymandering "Breaking" Drawing region lines so that the minority racial gathering is diffuse, spread out over numerous regions, so they have no impact in any one area "Pressing" Drawing locale lines to that the minority racial gathering is amassed into maybe a couple areas, with no impact in any of the others

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Redistricting: A Modern Gerrymander

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History of North Carolina's 12 th Congressional District

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