Conduct Change in Health

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Conduct Change in Health Some inquiries: What components foresee wellbeing practices? e.g., Why do you floss each night? then again why not? How do individuals change their wellbeing practices? Why don't individuals change? What are a portion of the boundaries? Speculations, Models, and Practicalities…

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Behavioral Immunogens and Pathogens Behavioral Pathogen A wellbeing bargaining conduct or propensity smoking, over the top eating, substance manhandle, perilous driving, unsafe sexual conduct Behavioral Immunogen A wellbeing upgrading conduct or propensity practicing routinely, utilizing sunscreen, adhering to a good diet, rehearsing safe sex, wearing safety belts

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Behavioral Immunogens and Death Rate

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Preventing Injury and Disease Primary Prevention (Efforts to keep malady or harm from happening – e.g., honing great sustenance, working out, abstaining from smoking, getting consistent wellbeing screening – these are the behavioral immunogens ) Secondary Prevention (Actions taken to recognize and treat an ailment or incapacity at a very early stage in its event – e.g., observing manifestations, taking solution, taking after treatment regimens) Tertiary Prevention (Actions taken to contain harm once an illness or inability has advanced past its initial stages – e.g., radiation treatment, chemotherapy) less savvy and less advantageous than essential or auxiliary counteractive action the most widely recognized type of human services in the U.S.

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What impacts Health Behaviors? Fig. 6.1, p.177

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Barriers to Healthy Behaviors Individual Barriers Inertia Operant molding issue – quick rewards and punishments are a great deal more viable than postponed ones Finances Optimistic Bias - The inclination of a great many people to trust that they are less inclined to end up sick than others People who feel powerless against particular wellbeing issues will probably hone preventive wellbeing practices Invincibility tale (particularly in young people) Within points of confinement, positive thinking passes on wellbeing favorable circumstances

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Family Barriers Health propensities are regularly gained from guardians and other people who display wellbeing trading off practices corpulent guardians will probably have fat youngsters offspring of issue consumers are themselves at expanded danger of manhandling liquor

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Health System Barriers Medicine tends to concentrate on treatment as opposed to avoidance A noteworthy rate of Americans don't have medical coverage Unrealistic or befuddling proposals

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Community Barriers Access to _____ (social insurance, practice offices, supermarkets) Absence of group wellbeing advancement (e.g., no motivators to walk) Some situations advance wellbeing bargaining practices e.g., liquor utilize and voracious boozing in school

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Models for Health Behavior Change Given every one of these hindrances, why (and how?) might a man change his or her wellbeing conduct? Speculations and Models (give present "Changing Health Behavior Theories" for homework)

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Stage Theories Transtheoretical Model (see Table 6.2) People go through 5 organizes in adjusting wellbeing conduct Stage 1: Precontemplation Stage 2: Contemplation Stage 3: Preparation Stage 4: Action Stage 5: Maintenance Stage 6: Termination Examples -

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Stage Theories Stage hypotheses give a "formula" for perfect conduct change, yet… difficult to place everybody in a discrete "stage"; presumably a more consistent and non-straight process Enable intercessions to be coordinated to the particular needs of a man who is "trapped" at a specific stage

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Recovery Self-Efficacy Coping Self-Efficacy Task Self-Efficacy Action Planning Outcome Expectancies Disengagement Intention Initiative Maintenance Coping Planning Recovery Risk Perception Action Barriers and Resources Health Action Process Approach - A continuum demonstrate

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The Health Belief Model (Cognitive model) Example from content, p. 183

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Theory of Planned Behavior (Social discernment show)

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Support for these hypotheses People's self-reported dispositions and goals foresee an assortment of wellbeing advancing activities (weight reduction, condom utilize, smoking conduct, wellbeing screening) People will probably take part in wellbeing defensive practices on the off chance that they feel defenseless to the dangers of not doing as such

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Shortcomings of these speculations People don't generally do what they expect (or guarantee they mean) to do ("the goal conduct crevice") Attitudes anticipate some wellbeing related practices, yet not others The prescient force of these hypotheses is more prominent for a few gatherings (high-SES, for instance) than for others The speculations disregard past involvement with a particular wellbeing related conduct AND PAST BEHAVIOR IS OFTEN THE BEST PREDICTOR

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Why Aren't Health Behavior Theories More Precise? They say little in regards to how goals are converted without hesitation They are unreasonably mind boggling Health propensities are regularly shaky after some time For the extremely youthful, old, and sick, medicinal services choices are frequently made by other individuals

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Changing Behaviors How would we be able to impact individuals to change wellbeing practices? What should be finished? What methodologies may be powerful?

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Changing Behaviors: Interventions I. Changing Health Beliefs II. Social Engineering III. Subjective Behavioral Methods

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Changing convictions: Health Education Campaigns Health Education in a perfect world… recognizes particular wellbeing issues in a group examines foundation figures that incline, empower, and strengthen way of life and environment components executes wellbeing training program

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How Effective are Health Education Campaigns? Broad communications have all the earmarks of being best in alarming individuals to wellbeing dangers that they generally wouldn't think about, yet are less compelling in long haul conduct change (unless the message is exhibited reliably after some time, e.g., wellbeing dangers of smoking) What about dread based messages (frighten strategies)? e.g., Framing the message to push the danger of not playing out a wellbeing conduct

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Social Engineering Changing nature to change our practices Automatic safety belts and air sacks; bringing down speed restrain Design change for infant walkers Elimination of "Joe Camel" advertisements Requiring vaccinations for school passage Worksite wellbeing programs at work wellbeing advancement programs organizing the earth (nearby rec center, banning smoking, and so on.)

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Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions Methods are typically utilized as a part of mix (a multimodal approach) Should be custom fitted to every individual Too numerous mediations can overpower a man

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Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions Three phases: Self-perception/checking Implementing change Maintenance/Relapse avoidance

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Self-observing Define target conduct Record and graph Continual process with modification

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Implementing Change (review) Conditioning techniques Modeling Cognitive change systems Etc…

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Conditioning strategies Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning Interventions Antabuse Counterconditioning (disease sickness) Operant Conditioning Interventions Modify results of a conduct (e.g., safety belt signal) Shaping Using rewards (exclusively or in a gathering setting, e.g., token economy)

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Modeling Observational learning Preparing a youngster for an operation Taking a yoga class Watching a video on bosom self-examination Going to A.A. Best when it demonstrates the reasonable troubles that individuals experience in rolling out improvements

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Stimulus control Modifying precursors of a conduct Poor wellbeing propensities frequently attached to occasions, individuals, spots, or things in nature (called discriminative jolts - DS) Examples (brilliant curves, … ) These DS should be distinguished and after that decreased

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Contingency Contracting Creating contract with another in regards to outcomes of one's conduct "Each time I do _____, I teach my companion to _____"

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Covert Self-control Cognitive procedures (e.g., subjective rebuilding) Train individuals to perceive and adjust interior discourse "I'm feeble, I can't control my smoking desires… " This announcement would be focused for alteration

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Skills Training and Behavioral Assignments Learn abilities to change conduct dynamic muscle unwinding self-assuredness preparing stress administration nourishment instruction methodical homework assignments

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Relapse Why do individuals backslide? BioPsychoSocial components (e.g., with smoking) Bio: Withdrawal, Genetics, Wt. Pick up Psych: Boredom, push, outrage Social: Conflicts, absence of social support, meaningful gestures (e.g., setting off to a bar) Relapse Prevention Need to control the biopsychosocial components, particularly creating adapting systems for overseeing high-hazard circumstances Coping with a "slip" Integrate conduct change into a for the most part sound way of life