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Daisy. Dandelion. Crab Grass. New World. Old World. 19. Examinations. Spain ... discharge syncretism of African and Christian. Old Testament, want for opportunity, underscored ...

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´╗┐composed v. oral customs human studies material culture antiquities

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normal determination hereditary float quality stream species

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paleontology fossils East Africa Rift Valley hominid bipedal Homo erectus run (fire) Homo sapiens

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adjustment = noticeable DNA Cline territorial shading lactose narrow mindedness sickle cell attribute chasing reaction

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Afrocentrism Eurocentrism

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Euro-driven Approach to World Studies North America Asia Europe South America Australia Africa

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Multicultural Approach to World Studies Europe North America Asia Concept or Event South America Australia Africa

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Afrocentrism/Eurocentrism Ideology: convictions, values and ways to deal with study Comparison Influence on scholarly research/written work/educating

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GHANA (500s - c. 1076) MALI (mid 1200s - 1400s) SONGHAY (1400s - 1591) KONGO (1300 - ) BENIN (? - late 1400s) Arrival of Portuguese - 1488 400 200 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 B.C./A.D.

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Ghana 700-1200 A.D. business focus - gold and salt Kanem-Bornu 800-1850 A.D. significant exchange course - design Islam Mali 1200-1500 A.D. exchanging capital Timbuktu

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Benin 1300-1800 A.D. specialists, seekers, brokers bronze plaques authorized by Oba (ruler) Songhai 1350-1600 A.D. warriors and researchers control real train markets establish single domain

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Arrival of Europeans Portuguese 1488 Prince Henry the Navigator 1441 Interest in route innovation, fields Portuguese mariners experienced in N/S Atlantic

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Spain - political unification ejection of Jews and Muslims 1492 Slavery fixing to European development mercantilism investigation and "revelation" of the Americas (New World) intentions: gold, transcendence and God

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Cultures in strife: Differences get to be deficiencies shading religion and most profound sense of being - polytheism/consecrated innovation and exchange history - oral custom conduct - dress, ceremonies, connection, marriage, precursors, music, craftsmanship

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Slavery in Africa v. Servitude in Americas African subjugation reason and practices African Diaspora Americas subjection reason and practices

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Old World/New World

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New World Corn Potato Tomato Peppers (Bell & Chili) Chocolate Vanilla Tobacco Beans (Lima, Pole, Navy, Kidney) Pumpkin Cassava Root (Manioc) Avocado Peanut, Pecan, Cashew Old World Horse Cattle Pig Sheep Chicken Honeybee Wheat, Asian Rice, Barley, Oats, Soy Sugar Cane Onion Lettuce Okra Peach & Pear

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New World Pineapple Blueberry Sunflower Petunia Black-peered toward Susan Dahlia Marigold Quinine Wild Rice Old World Watermelon Citrus Fruit Banana Olive Lilac Daffodil Tulip Daisy Dandelion Crab Grass New World Old World

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Comparisons Spain lawful code thirteenth penny. Siete Partidas slave = a man with a spirit, part of (family unit), rights and obligations subjugation = authoritative understanding, inverse of opportunity Crown and Church as defenders provinces: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica

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France lawful code - Code Noir slave = subordinate individual, required similarity in religion, dress, lead, mindful to the State bondage = financial game plan managed by State ensures slave as both individual and property settlements: St. Dominique, Martinique, Guadeloupe

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Great Britain no lawful code precedent-based law private property is sacrosanct esteem slave = a thing, disregarded as protest of religion subjugation = as custom directs/ace controls State = Crown has no intrigue/ agent govt. impact $

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slave is purchased, sold, sold, rented, acquired murder of slave = wrongdoing against property slave violations regarded as more genuine/having social centrality (affront, harm) settlements: Barbados, North American provinces

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Dutch varieties show multifaceted nature Surinam (British sources till 1667/ Protestant) cruel subjugation: high importation, high passings ranch economy confined estates truant landowners (70-80%)

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manumission of favored slaves - Surinam marriage mulatto class = government specialist revolts: hit one manor and withdraw

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Curacao (Spanish causes till 1634/Catholic) remiss arrangement of bondage: normal increment business economy (Portuguese Jews) ranches = societal position inhabitant proprietors = paternalism

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manumission of workers (liberated men more awful off than slaves) mistresses mulatto class = no educ./ treatment revolts: against infringement of rights influenced by Haitian rebellions

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Comparative servitude Country's length of experience Spain/Portugal control of slave exchange 15 - sixteenth century Brazil and Caribbean- - sugar islands England/France mastery 17 - nineteenth century (80% 1701-1850)

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Country's lawful idea of subjection Country's social discernments Differences religious change police directions manumission rehearses partiality and separation

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Demographics: extent of populace male proportion African societies conveyance

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Economic example: drive for fast benefit development of land overproduction of staples costs fall wearing down paternalism subjugation as social framework

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Abolition: France 1794 Danish 1805 British 1808 Importation: just 5% to North American states, yet by 1860 have 35% of all slaves - Factors of impact?

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Slavery in North America New England: MA, CT, RI, ME, NH, VT Ties to slave exchange New England advanced traders and settlements through obligations/made propriety Puritans supported subjection work deficiency state set up by God for "choose" oppression was demonstration of benevolence

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Legal assents 1641 first institution - war detainees, deliberate By 1670s - offspring of slaves Results subjugation got to be premise of monetary life formation of substantial shipper class brought African impact on America

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Slave parts absence of ranches implied less numbers aside from: Narragansett Planters - 5-40 for each estate (dairy, horse rearing) occupations various: most incessant = rancher, whitesmith, metal forger, shipbuilder, distiller, press produce specialist, mariner, worker, director of distribution center, business, caulker workers = contracted out

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Slave parts living game plans: with family commonality and consideration use in frontier barrier: prepared for local army until 1660 (from there on banned)

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Controls gentle contrasted with NY and South slave codes: ensure property, protect against rebellion safeguard financial/political crevice

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Common Deviance runaways strike or criticism of whites robbery tipsiness confine development care of poor conditions for flexibility (manumission)

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Punishments: expulsion to W. Non mainstream players mutilation for control demise manumission of impoverished or old fines v. lash

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Protections no work on Sunday persistent demise i.e. 1686 capital punishment for ace interracial sex illegal 1705

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Status as property and individual (Puritan family unit part) assessable, seized for obligations, portable products right to life right to property (purchase, offer, exchange, hold) court rights: affirm, sue, make contracts, ask for investigation, trial by jury

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Diversions house raising, maple sugar celebrations, corn husking, chasing, angling, fiddling, narrating, get-aways Training Day (civilian army preparing) Election Day (deride races)

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Humane in correlation economy couldn't assimilate numerous less numbers = less dread = less controls 1720 = 9.3 for each 1000 1740 = 11.6 1760 = 1.9 By 1750 = 3% of aggregate populace 1800 1:50 in N. Eng. 2:3 in S. Carolina

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hint affiliation = kinder (ailment, attire, sustenance, training, disciplines) religion = slaves as individual with soul instruction = liberal, required for differing employments, brought higher costs

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Achievers under the framework Jupiter Hammon Newport Gardiner Phillis Wheatley Lucy Terry

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Abolition of subjugation sue for flexibility in courts: Jennie Slew Elizabeth Freeman "Mum Bett" Quok Walker 1783 regular rights contention

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Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey, Pa. - 6.5% Dutch frontier foundation - brutal subjection Pa. - pilgrim safe house for Quakers (German) Society of Friends adjusted to standards until 1773 Philadelphia and Quaker impact NY Pa NJ

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Economic Growth business growth of trade, port urban communities, duplicated requirement for slaves, specialists, workers port urban communities Need for slaves workers: workers, artisans, mariners, hirelings

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Statutory acknowledgment NY = 1665 Pa. = 1700 NJ = 1702 Slavery crested by 1720, then decrease 1720 - 10% of area/15% = NY 1720 = 66.7 for each 1000 1740 = 11.4 1760 = 20.3 1780 = 1.6 NY Pa NJ

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Middle Colony Achievers Gustavas Vasa (Olaudah Equiano) James Derham Paul Cuffe Richard Allen James Forten Absalom Jones

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Southern Colonies: VA, MD, DE, NC, SC, GA Types of estate work: errand (rice), pack (tobacco, cotton) Upper South Lower South 1720 = 147 for every 1000 891 1740 = 149 375 1760 = 171 1780 = 72 179 Total of populace: 7% in 1680/25% in 1720 MD DE VA NC SC GA

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The Chesapeake: Virginia & Maryland tobacco, grains 1619 = first Africans as obligated hirelings by 1625 - 23 by 1700 - 1600 little populace - rights and openings

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property owning - arrive, individual, asset headrights, wills, arrive gives as populace expands/laws sanctioned 1661 statutory acknowledgment

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family structure = enough females = creole interra