Class Presentation on Conflict

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Workshop Presentation on Conflict Ayse Kudat Social Assessment 2002

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Knowledge Management for SSN Web-webpage hunt and connections broad web look/joins Mining division clashes Water part clashes Original distributions Summaries/Overheads Training classes Analytical ramifications for SU SA concentrate on advantages sharing Social hazard examinations for focusing on destitution mediations Dynamic investigations of partner gatherings Re-concentrate on social activation/social capital and social character SUMMARY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE TEAM EFFORT ON CONFLICT ANALYSES A slide presentation by Ayse Kudat, with support of Bulent Ozbilgin and Cem Gelgin

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Global Trends in Violent Conflict 1946-1999 Gurr, et al. Peace and Conflict, 2001

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Trends in Violent Political and Ethnic Conflict 1946-1999 The stretch out of fighting among and inside states diminished by about half in the principal decade after the Cold War, yet intrastate clash has tremendously ascended in 50 years

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Regional Trends in Magnitudes of Violent Societal Conflict Western Democracies and Japan Few Western states had rough societal clashes amid the second 50% of the twentieth century. Communist Bloc and Successor States Ethnic wars that started in the post-Communist states in the mid 1990s were contained by 2000, with the exception of in Chechnya.

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Regional Trends in Magnitudes of Violent Societal Conflict Latin America and the Caribbean Asia has encountered more prominent extents of societal clash than some other world district. East, South, and Central Asia The experience of the Middle East and North Africa tracks nearly the long haul worldwide patterns in societal clash.

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Regional Trends in Magnitudes of Violent Societal Conflict North Africa and the Middle East The most genuine political clash in the MNA area is a psychological oppressor war being battled by Islamic aggressors . Rough ethnic and political competitions ejected in Africa south of the Sahara while provincial administer was closure in the 1960s. Africa South of the Sahara The worldwide confirmation demonstrates that societal fighting has declined for a great part of the most recent decade. The end of the Cold War wiped out the superpower competition that energized numerous societal clashes. It additionally opened up open doors for peacemaking by the UN, provincial associations, and political activists in war-torn social orders. Yet, the African experience demonstrates that there have been breaking points to the viability of post-Cold War strategies for overseeing inside clash. Moderately minimal global exertion has been given to advancing the arrangement of African clashes by correlation with the political and material assets gave to peace making in the post-Communist expresses, the Middle East, and Central America.

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Poor and non-just states are relied upon to encounter genuine fighting later on. Worldwide Warfare by Level of Societal Capacity, 1946-1999

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Peace and Conflict Western Democracies and Japan Armed Conflict Indicator: The symbols depend on data on equipped clashes being battled in 1999-2000. A red symbol highlights nations with a medium to high extent of furnished political or ethnic clash; a yellow symbol recognizes nations with either a low level of outfitted clash in 1999-2000 or an equipped clash that finished somewhere around 1996 and 1999. A green symbol banners nations that have had no outfitted clash somewhere around 1996 and 2000. Peace-Building Capacity : The pointer of peace-building limit abridges the six particular markers which is utilized to rank nations inside every area. Red and yellow symbols on the six particular pointers are proof of issues while green symbols flag a limit with respect to overseeing strife.

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Peace and Conflict Latin America and the Caribbean Democracy, Transitional Regimes, and Autocracy. The symbols demonstrate the way of a nation's political establishments in 2000. Red symbols speak to absolutist administrations. Yellow symbols are nations with governments in the transitional zone amongst absolutism and majority rules system. Green symbols are full vote based systems. Self-Determination: The symbols consider the achievement or disappointment of governments in settling clashes from 1980 through 2000.Red symbols imply nations tested by furnished clashes over self-assurance in 2000. Yellow symbols hail nations with one of these two examples: either (a) peaceful self-assurance developments in 2000 however no reputation of pleasing such developments in the previous 20 years; or (b) brutal self-assurance developments in 2000 and a reputation of obliging other such developments in the previous 20 years. Green symbols mean nations that have effectively overseen at least one self-assurance clashes since 1980.

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Peace and Conflict East, South, and Central Asia Capacity for Peace-Building: Societal Resources The administrations of rich social orders are better ready to keep up peace and security than are legislatures of poor social orders. A pointer of societal vitality utilization per capita (found the middle value of in the course of the last half-century) is utilized to rank nations on this marker. Red symbols connote nations in the most reduced quintile. Yellow symbols signal nations in the second and third quintiles, green symbols recognize nations in the main 40% in vitality utilization. Limit with regards to Peace-Building: The Durability of Political Institutions The symbols consider the development of a nation's arrangement of government. Red symbols highlight nations whose political foundations in 2000 were set up somewhere around 1995 and 1999. Yellow symbols enlist nations whose commonwealths were built up amid the 1985-94 decade. Green symbols are utilized for nations whose nations were built up before 1985.

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Peace and Conflict North Africa and Middle East Good and Bad Neighborhoods: Ten politically pertinent "neighborhoods" are characterized: West Africa, North Africa, East Africa, South Africa, Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, South America, Central America, and Europe/North America. Nations with green symbols are in areas with generally low equipped clash and for the most part majority rule governments. Nations with red symbols are in "neighborhoods" with high furnished clash and numerous transitional administrations. Nations with yellow symbols are in locales with mediocre outfitted clash and for the most part dictatorial administrations.

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Peace and Conflict Socialist Bloc and Successor State Peace and Conflict – 2001 Gurr, Marshall, Khosla.

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What is struggle? At the point when does it grow into outfitted clash?

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Definitions of social clash Social clash is a battle over qualities or cases to status, control, and rare assets The points of the contention gatherings are to pick up the coveted qualities, as well as to kill, harm, or wipe out adversaries. Social clash includes an expansive scope of social marvels: class, racial, religious, and collective clashes; riots, uprisings, transformations; strikes and common issue; walks, shows, dissent get-togethers. Source: Anthony Oberschall. Hypotheses of Social Conflict. Yearly Reviews Sociology, 1978, 4:291-315.

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Theory of Social Conflict A thorough hypothesis of social clash includes: The basic wellsprings of social clash, depending on stratification, social change, and full scale sociological speculations. Struggle gather development and the activation for aggregate activity of testing gatherings and their objectives. For this subject, hypotheses of aggregate activity, social capital, enrollment, investment, duty, and inward structure are helpful. The elements of contention: procedures of cooperation between strife amasses; the types of contention; its size, extension, and term; heightening and de-acceleration; struggle direction and determination; strife results.

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There are various reasons for struggle at all levels Communication disappointment Leadership Personality Value contrasts Cultural contrasts Ethnic contrasts Civilization Goal contrasts Technology Differences Military developed Lack of participation External care Group union Economic rivalry Military rivalry Competition over regular assets, for example, water, timberlands, oil, pearls and so on

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Periods of quickly growing open doors took after by log jam (e.g. US social liberties) Ambiguity about relative power (Vietnam war) Status irregularity or rank dis-balance Weakening regulating agreement Zero-whole thinking Close correspondence Leader impression of hardship Consensus about standards Lack of data about Others' achievement Physical and mental isolation Existence of strict status frameworks Reality or myth of social portability Physical and social obstructions to correspondence Removal of real or potential authority from the dissenter bunches Conditions that empower/dishearten struggle

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Conflict and Change Conflict inalienable/inactive Situations that it transforms into equipped clash are uncommon Conflict is not generally and essentially dangerous: Rather, it advances Change Unity Reconciliation,

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Interpersonal Inter-assemble Inter-authoritative Inter-State Two gathering Multi-party Contending/Imposing Yielding Problem Solving Combination Levels of Conflict/Strategies for Resolution

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LESSONS LEARNED FROM SOCIAL SCIENCE LITERATURE Social and political components have more prominent esteem in anticipating between state strife (Huntington 1993) Social preparation, social capital, social cohesiveness and aggregate activity are among the most vital considers furnished clash onset and acceleration (Benson and Kugler 1998) It is not static circumstances or even durable destitution that make clashes heighten but instead changes in the appropriation frameworks Changes in power equality Changes in access to assets Changes in inward and outer partnerships External mediations ("help") seem to impactsly affect heightening (Brecher 1982; superpower inclusion - , UN +) Resource scarcit