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Manager/supervisee moral desires: What goes ahead away from public scrutiny? Jeffrey E. Barnett, Psy.D., ABPP Karen Strohm Kitchener, Ph.D. Jenny Cornish, Ph.D., ABPP Rodney Goodyear, Ph.D.

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Overview Introduction (Jeff Barnett) Methods/Results (Jenny Cornish) Discussion (Karen Kitchener) Reflections (Rod Goodyear)

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Ethics Issues and Dilemmas in the Supervisory Relationship The Role of Supervision in Each Psychologist's Training and Professional Development • The apprenticeship model of preparing • Supervisor as good example • Training future directors

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Competence in Supervision Competence in Supervision Competence in Clinical Practice Competence in Ethics

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What is Competence? How and where do we get It? Information Skills Attitudes, Values, and Judgment The capacity to actualize them viably (See Haas & Malouf, 2005; Rodolfa et al., 2005) The parts of instruction, preparing, and directed clinical experience

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What Makes for Effective Supervision? What Supervisees need to say Presence of minding, trusting, and community oriented connections Respect toward and support of supervisees Constructive criticism given in nonjudgmental and pleasant way Create a protected situation

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Approachability and receptivity to supervisees' thoughts and conclusions Clinically capable, adaptable, experienced, with great relationship aptitudes Focus on morals in supervision and act morally

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So What's the Problem? Ladany (2002) found that more than half of supervisees overviewed reported encountering no less than one dishonest conduct with respect to a clinical administrator.

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Relevant Ethics Issues Timely and exhaustive educated assent handle Only managing in one's territories of skill Maintaining suitable limits and evading conceivably exploitative different connections

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Respecting customers' and supervisees' protection and privacy Respecting customers' and supervisees' self-governance Providing auspicious and valuable input Attending to pertinent assorted qualities issues and staying away from inclination

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Adequate thoughtfulness regarding self-mind Appropriate designation to subordinates Accurate representation to general society Training supervisees to think and act morally (Kitchener, 2000)

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Reasons for this Study Need to better comprehend morals quandaries and troubles in the supervisory relationship Need to comprehend manager and supervisee points of view Need information to control the improvement of particular morals direction for administrators and supervisees

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Method Parsimonious subjective approach (private composed study of chiefs and supervisees in regards to hazardous occurrences in supervision) Approved by University of Denver IRB Funded by DU Faculty Research Fund give

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Procedures 2 mass mailings to 552 Internship Training Directors (ITDs) recorded in the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Programs (APPIC) Directory. Likewise E-mail update ITDs requested that forward studies to one chief and one assistant supervisee at their site (did not should be a supervision match) Necessary profit rate subordinate for when depleted new classifications and reactions got to be tedious (Kain, 2004): happened ½ path through scoring so return rate more than adequate for the study

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Instruments/Packets Developed by specialists Cover letters to Internship Training Directors, Supervisors, Supervisees Demographic sheet Survey (requested depiction of a tricky episode in supervision, regardless of whether the member felt this was a moral issue, and what they did to determine issue) Stamped return envelopes Stamped pool postcard for IPOD smaller than expected

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Participants: 62 Supervisees Mostly White (83.3%), female (86.4%), from clinical program (78.3%), ages 20-30 (70%) 46.7% had 6 - 9 managers 60% had taken a course in supervision, with 51.7% additionally having further preparing 62.3% portrayed a moral issue in supervision; 75.4% had attempted to determine it

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Participants: 66 Supervisors Mostly White (90.8%), female (66.2%), PhD (61.5%), from clinical program (67.7%), ages 41 – 50 (61.5%) 41.5% had regulated for a long time, with 47.7% having 26+ supervisees Only 38.5% had taken graduate courses in supervision, yet 67.7% had gotten further preparing in supervision 68.2% depicted a moral issue in supervision; 92.4% of those attempted to determine the issue

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Scoring Used basic occurrence scoring strategy: Kain, D. L. (2004). 2 raters at first sorted reactions, created depictions of basic occurrence classifications, changed/refined classifications Sent classifications to 3 rd specialist who freely scored reactions Multiple phone calls and E-sends to refine classes

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Reliability for time one: 66% for directors and supervisees Reliability for time two: 95% for bosses and 86% for supervisees Discovered two scientists not utilizing various classifications for single reactions, so needed to rescore Collaborated for accord rating: 100%

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Categories for Supervisees General ineptitude of the chief (e.g., administrator inaccessible, nods off amid supervision, concentrates just on case administration of insignificant issues) Personal issues (e.g., manager seems inebriated, examines separate) Shaming (e.g., supervisee feels disgraced about individual convictions in individual or gathering group)

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Multiple connections/Boundary issues (e.g., boss sees relative of supervisee in psychotherapy) Inappropriate part demonstrating (e.g., managers contending in an open place) Disagreement with boss about managerial issues (e.g., paid time off) Disagreement with boss about clinical issues (e.g., selection of tests)

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Problem with an alternate staff part Never had any tricky episodes in supervision

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Categories for Supervisors General ineptitude of the supervisee (e.g., every now and again late or no/shows, insufficient clinical abilities, poor or missing printed material, not prepared for temporary position) Personal issues (e.g., enthusiastic issues, discouraged and self-destructive, externalized fault, unreliable, lied) Dual relationship/Boundary issues (e.g., met customer for lunch, kept running after some time in sessions)

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Confidentiality (e.g., talked about customers in broad daylight space, discharged data without customer authorization) Failed to counsel with boss (e.g., didn't get some information about need to report youngster manhandle) Failed to take after boss' guidelines or organization approach (e.g., declined to give fitting judgments)

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Falsified documentation (e.g., composed notes for customers never observed) Lack of educated assent (neglected to acquire educated assent) N/A (practices that did not suggest unscrupulous lead – e.g., supervisee demonstrated general absence of activity, however no moral or clinical issues)

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Results - Supervisees Problems portrayed in supervision by recurrence: General inadequacy (37.1%) Shaming (17.7%) Personal issues (12.9%) Multiple connections/limit issues (9.7%) Problems with a non-boss staff part (3.2%) Inappropriate part displaying (1.6%) 19.4% depicted clinical contradictions and 1.6% portrayed authoritative differences as opposed to moral issues

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Results - Supervisors Problems depicted in supervision by recurrence: General ineptitude (24.2%) Personal issues (18.2%) Refused to take after boss' guidelines or office strategy (16.4%) Dual connections/limit issues (10.6%) Confidentiality (7.6%) Failure to counsel with boss (3%) Falsified documentation (3%) Failed to give educated assent (1.5%) 21.2% depicted occurrences that were not moral issues with supervisees

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Significant contrasts Supervisees were more probable than administrators to demonstrate they had taken a supervision course (p<.05) Supervisors were more probable than supervisees to show they had attempted to determine moral issues in supervision (p<.01)

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Discussion Supervisee points of view Competence of the boss to regulate General ineptitude Shaming Multiple connections/limit issues Supervisor viewpoints General inadequacy of the supervisee Personal issues which meddle with capable work Refusal to take after boss' guidelines or office arrangement

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Limitations Lack of preparing for third rater Possible example predisposition Different points of view Directions for future research Random specimen; bigger populace

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Implications High rates of moral issues, particularly identified with fitness Supervision needs a different area of the APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct Need clear correspondence between scholarly projects (guards) and preparing destinations Need clear correspondence amongst bosses and supervisees in regards to desires Need better preparing in morals and additionally moral basic leadership and thinking

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Contact data Jeffrey Barnett: Karen Kitchener: Jenny Cornish: Rod Goodyear:

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References American Psychological Association. (2002). Moral standards of therapists and set of accepted rules. American Psychologist, 57 (12), 1060-1073. Bernard, J. M. & Goodyear, R. K. (2004). Basics of moral supervision (third release). Boston: Pearson Education. Barnett, J.E. (2000). The director's agenda: Attending to moral, lawful, and clinical issues. The Maryland Psychologist, 46 (1) , 16-17. Barnett, J.E., Doll, B., Younggren, J.N., & Rubin, N.J. (2007). Clinical skill for honing therapists: Clearly a work in advance. Proficient Psychology: Research and Practice, 38, 510-517 .

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. Barnett, J. E. (2007). Editorials on the