Checking the vehicle through Drake Passage

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Outline:- . Why? Drake Passage transport variability on a scope of timescales:- 1) subseasonal2) seasonal3) interannual4) common (briefly)What is driving and restricting the watched transport variability The present and conceivable future condition of observing - least prerequisites for a Drake Passage checking framework?.

Presentation Transcript

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Checking the vehicle through Drake Passage Mike Meredith Chris Hughes Phil Woodworth South Atlantic Workshop, May 2007

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Overview:- Why? Drake Passage transport changeability on a scope of timescales:- 1) subseasonal 2) occasional 3) interannual 4) common (quickly) What is constraining and restricting the watched transport fluctuation The present and conceivable future condition of observing - least prerequisites for a Drake Passage checking framework?

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Why? :- Drake Passage is a key chokepoint for the world's biggest current, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Warm, salt, mass, freshwater, supplements and so on are moved between the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, with results for worldwide atmosphere, biological systems and so on. => Therefore essential to comprehend what changeability the maritime circumpolar transport displays on a scope of timescales, and how it connects with lower scopes.

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Why? Substantial amounts of mass, warmth, salt and so forth moved around Southern Ocean, with connections to lower scopes. Dissimilarity between chokepoints requires learning of the chokepoint transports. How do these change? (Ganachaud, Wunsch)

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How would we screen the vehicle? Loads of techniques have been attempted… Repeat hydrographic segments (CTD, ADCP, LADCP) Repeat disposable bathythermograph (XBT) segments Current meter clusters Tide gage information Bottom weight recorders (BPRs) Inverted resound sounders (IESs) Satellite altimetry Satellite gravity and so on

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ND2 How would we screen the vehicle inconstancy? Heaps of various ways… But a standout amongst the most helpful (for reasons that will turn out to be clear) is to utilize base weight recorders (BPRs) and tide gages Antarctic system is not enormous, but rather great scope around >½ mainland ND2 and SD2 initially conveyed amid WOCE; now almost 20 years of information.

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How would we screen transport changeability? Models recommend that ocean level/base weight nearby Antarctica ought to be a decent file of circumpolar transport Also that vehicle changes are truly circumpolar on these timescales, and emphatically controlled by bathymetry (Hughes, Meredith & Heywood, JPO, 1999)

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BPRs sent from ship; profundities normally 1000-3000m Deployments commonly of 1-2 years length – fundamental utilize is for subseasonal and occasional changeability.

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Subseasonal changeability

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Subseasonal timescales OCCAM ¼º (Hughes et al., GRL, 2003; see likewise Aoki, GRL, 2002) Highly sound. No discernable slack amongst driving and reaction. No discernable slack around Antarctica. Unequivocally identified with (anticipated) Drake Passage transport.

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Forcing for circumpolar transport changeability is the Southern Annular Mode See-saw in barometric weight amongst Antarctica and lower-scopes. Predominant method of additional tropical barometrical changeability in Southern Hemisphere. Prevailing timescales are ~10 days and more. Expanding, because of likely anthropogenic causes (e.g. Thompson and Solomon, Science ; 2002; Marshall et al. GRL, 2004). 850-hPa stature relapsed on SAM record

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What is constraining the changeability? Connection of south Drake Passage BPR information with eastbound twist from NCEP reanalysis Shows veritable circumpolarity of constraining

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Subseasonal timescales So what is the driving for the northern Drake BPRs … ? Central/tropical Pacific winds, instead of circumpolar SAM.

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Subseasonal timescales Related to waves proliferating along rack and slant of South America. Confirmation of baroclinicity in wave structure => decision of organization profundity is basic (dissimilar to south Drake) (Hughes and Meredith, 2006)

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North Drake BPR information likewise indicates solid relationship with transport of Malvinas Current at ~40˚S. Slack is roughly 2 weeks – an alternate mode? (Vivier, Provost and Meredith, JPO, 2001).

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Seasonal fluctuation

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Seasonal timescales (Meredith et al., GRL, 2004) Circumpolar winds have fortified in late decades, with change unequivocally regularly adjusted. Inclines in month-by-month BPR information concur with those of the SAM. => changes in the regularity of the circumpolar winds are actuating changes in the maritime circumpolar transport. (Anthropogenic?)

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Interannual fluctuation

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Interannual timescales (Meredith et al., 2004) Faraday tide gage is best dataset for interannual inconstancy Annual means demonstrate noteworthy relationship with SAM, and furthermore OCCAM transport, in spite of baroclinic changeability Range of transport is very little (~7 Sv, c.f. ~20 Sv from CTDs) Aliassing is obviously an issue with CTD areas

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So what examining interim do we have to get solid yearly means? (Meredith and Hughes, GRL, 2005) Answer is: < 7 days, for 95% level! Also, this presumes zero estimation blunder… by and by, need ceaseless information from in situ instrumentation (BPRs and so on)

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Interannual timescales Sampling necessity alone requests estimation interim of shorter than 1 week. Huge estimation blunders imply that significantly more fast testing is required. Which implies that rehash CTD/XBT/ADCP areas won't catch genuine regular or interannual inconstancy. Neither will altimetry along a solitary groundtrack. By and by, need constant information from in situ sources. Some mix of BPRs/tide gages/moorings and so forth is required

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Why does the ACC shift so little on interannual timescales? ACC quickens as eastbound wind push increments Circumpolar Eddy Kinetic Energy then starts expanding, restricting the expanding transport of the ACC. (Meredith & Hogg, GRL, 2006)

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"Mainstream" changes

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Secular changes (Fyfe & Saenko, 2005) Winds over Southern Ocean have expanded drastically in late decades… Has ACC quickened accordingly? And additionally moved southward? Coarse-determination models recommend there ought to be a change…

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But how might we know… ? On interannual timescales, an adjustment in SAM list of 1 gives an adjustment in ACC transport of around 6 Sv… If same relationship remains constant for longer timescales (?), increasing speed in ACC because of pattern in SAM would be little contrasted with aliassing and estimation mistake. What's more, tide gages have inclines all their own.

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The Present: observing is somewhat different, both spatially and experimentally France CM UK CTD + BPR (WOCE SR1b) US PIES WOCE SR1 Russia CTD Spain CTD Argentina CTD US XBT/ADCP WOCE A21

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The Future: More key considered what the different components are letting us know, and how they are associated. Focus on having instrumentation in situ long haul. Extraordinary regard for northern limit of Drake Passage, and flags going to western limit of South Atlantic. Patterns (how?). More brilliant utilization of remote detecting (inc. Effortlessness?). Screen temperature and saltiness simultaneously with speed if need inconstancy in warmth & freshwater fluxes.