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Change. Change in structure or measure of an organism\'s hereditary materialChange in genotype produces change in phenotype = mutant2 sorts of mutationChromosome mutationChange in structure of one chromosome. Chromosome changes. Change in chromosome numberNon-disjunction in meiosisNon-disjunction of sex chromosomesComplete non-disjunction and polyploidy.

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´╗┐Transformation Higher Biology

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Mutation Change in structure or measure of a living being's hereditary material Change in genotype produces change in phenotype = mutant 2 sorts of transformation Chromosome transformation Change in structure of one chromosome

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Chromosome changes Change in chromosome number Non-disjunction in meiosis Non-disjunction of sex chromosomes Complete non-disjunction and polyploidy

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Non-disjunction amid meiosis Spindle fiber comes up short amid meiosis Members of one sets of homologous chromosomes neglect to wind up distinctly isolated 2 gametes get additional duplicate of influenced chromosome 2 gametes do not have that chromosome

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Down's Syndrome Non-disjunction in chromosome 21 Occurs in human egg mother cell at least one irregular eggs framed (n = 24) Fertilized by typical sperm (n = 23) Formation of anomalous zygote (2n = 47)

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Non dis-intersection of sex chromosomes

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Turner's disorder Gamete with no sex chromosomes wires with ordinary X gamete Zygote has chromosome supplement 2n = 45 Individuals are female and short in stature Infertile on the grounds that ovaries haven't grown ordinarily

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Klinefelter's disorder XX egg prepared by typical Y sperm or Normal X egg is treated by a XY sperm Zygote has chromosome supplement 2n = 47 (44 + XXY)

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Always male Normally barren Cannot create sperm

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Complete non-disjunction and polyploidy All the axle filaments in a gamete mother cell flop All homologous sets neglect to end up distinctly isolated Production of unusual diploid gametes Each contains 2 finish sets of chromosomes rather than one

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Polyploidy Fertilization of strange gametes Formation of mutant plants which have finish additional arrangements of chromosomes This kind of chromosome change is called polyploidy

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A: the strawberry plant is presented to a concoction B: because of the impact of compound, aggregate non-disjunction at meiosis produces diploid gametes(2n) C: two diploid gametes meld at preparation D: another plant creates which has four arrangements of chromosomes (4n)

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Economic noteworthiness Polyploid plants are bigger than diploid relatives Increased seed and natural product estimate Many monetarily created edit plants are polyploid -apples -strawberries -tomatoes -wheat Give more noteworthy yields

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Effects of polyploidy Uneven arrangements of chromosome -polyploidy plants are sterile Produce seedless organic product Increase in life Resistance to sickness

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