C H A P T E R 11

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. Learning Objectives. w Find out how hypobaric situations (at elevation) point of confinement or add to perfor-mance.. w Learn the physiological alterations that go with acclimatization to height.. w Discern whether a continuance competitor who trains at height can perform better adrift level..

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w Discover what conditions and wellbeing dangers are one of a kind to hypobaric situations (submerged). (kept) Learning Objectives w Find out how hypobaric conditions (at height) farthest point or add to perfor- mance. w Learn the physiological modification that accompany acclimatization to height. w Discern whether a continuance competitor who trains at height can perform better adrift level.

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Learning Objectives w Learn what physiological and obsessive problems confront scuba jumpers who plummet 30 m or more. w Examine what happens to muscles, bones, and blood in a microgravity domain (in space). w Find out how tissues and physiological systems change with delayed presentation to microgravity and what countermeasures can assist a space traveler on his or her arrival to Earth.

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Conditions at Altitude w Defined as no less than 1,500 m (4,921 ft) above ocean level w Reduced barometric weight (hypobaric) w Reduced halfway weight of oxygen (PO 2 ) w Reduced air temperature w Low stickiness w Increase in sunlight based radiation power

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Effects of Altitude on PO 2 Gradient The diminishment in PO 2 at height diminishes the fractional weight angle between the blood and the tissues and accordingly brings down oxygen transport. This essentially clarifies the decline in perseverance sports execution at elevation. PO 2 adrift level = 760 mmHg  0.2093 = 159 mmHg PO 2 at 8,000 ft = 564 mmHg  0.2093 = 118 mmHg Sea Level 8,000 ft Arterial PO 2 100 mmHg 60 mmHg Muscle PO 2 40 mmHg 40 mmHg Δ PO 2 60 mmHg 20 mmHg (dissemination inclination)

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. w As PO 2 diminishes over 1600 m, VO 2 max diminishes straightly. Intense Respiratory Responses to Altitude w Pulmonary ventilation expands in view of chemoreceptor reaction to hypoxia (low blood vessel PO 2 ) – body liquids turn out to be more soluble from brushing off CO 2 . This is trailed by expanded discharge of bicarbonate by the kidneys. w Pulmonary oxygen dispersion diminishes on account of ↓ Δ PO 2 . w Oxygen transport is somewhat hindered; decreased Hb immersion from 98% adrift level to 90-92% at 8,000 ft. w Thus, VO 2 max is impeded once you are over 1,600 m.

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. CHANGES IN VO 2 MAX WITH ALTITUDE Denver – 5280 feet

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. Height does not influence VO 2 max until roughly 1,600 m (5,294 ft). Over this level, the diminishing in VO 2 max is around 8-11% for each 1,000 m (3,281 ft). . Impact of Altitude on Aerobic Capacity

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. w Initial increment in HR and Q amid submaximal work to make up for less O 2 ; SV is diminished with plasma volume decrease . w Decrease in HR, SV, and Q amid maximal work, which adds to the decline in VO 2 max. Intense Cardiovascular Responses to Altitude w Initial diminish in plasma volume (more red platelets per unit of blood, along these lines more oxygen per unit of blood)

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Thought Question How might you clarify the quick drop in plasma volume that happens when one goes to elevation?

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Acute and Chronic Cardiovascular Responses to Altitude amid Submaximal Exercise Brooks et al., Exercise Physiology, 2000

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Metabolic Responses to Altitude w Increase in anaerobic digestion system w Increase in lactic corrosive generation w Less lactic corrosive creation at maximal work rates at height than adrift level since it isn't conceivable to practice at as high a power

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Acute and Chronic Metabolic Responses to Altitude amid Submaximal Exercise Brooks et al., Exercise Physiology, 2000

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Acute and Chronic Catecholamine Responses to Altitude amid Submaximal Exercise Brooks et al., Exercise Physiology, 2000

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w Endurance competitors can plan for rivalries at height by performing high-force continuance preparing at any rise to build their VO 2 max. . Key Points Performance at Altitude w At elevation, continuance movement is influenced the most because of the diminished oxygen transport in light of low PO 2 . w Anaerobic sprint exercises that last 2 min or less are the slightest influenced by elevation. w The more slender air at elevation gives less streamlined resistance and less gravitational force, in this way possibly enhancing sprinting, hopping, and tossing occasions.

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. w Decrease in VO 2 max with starting introduction does not enhance much Acclimatization to Altitude w Increase in number of red platelets (RBC) w Short term diminish in plasma volume, later switched w Increase in RBC, hemoglobin, and blood thickness w Decrease in muscle fiber zones and aggregate muscle range, in this way shorter O 2 dispersion separations from vessels to muscle fiber mitochondria w Increase in fine thickness w Increase in pneumonic ventilation

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Hb CONCENTRATIONS AT ALTITUDE College Station – 362 feet Denver – 5280 feet

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Altitude Training for Sea-Level Performance w Increased red platelet mass w Not demonstrated that height preparing enhances ocean level execution w Difficult to think about since power and volume are decreased at height – along these lines, what you pick up in hoisted RBC, you lose as a result of diminishments in preparing force w Live at high elevation and prepare at lower heights—living high/preparing low

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LIVING HIGH, TRAINING LOW 3,000 km time was tried adrift level previously, then after the fact 27 days of preparing at 4,100 ft. furthermore, living at 8,200 ft. The mean increment in 3,000 km time was 1.1%, and the mean increment in VO2max was 3.2%.

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. w Increase VO 2 max adrift level to have the capacity to contend at a lower relative power while at elevation Training for Optimal Altitude Performance w Compete inside 24 hours of entry to height w Train at 1,500 to 3,000 m above ocean level for no less than 2 weeks before contending

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Acute Altitude Sickness w Nausea, regurgitating, dyspnea, sleep deprivation w Appears 6 to 96 h after landing in height w May come about because of carbon dioxide gathering w Avoid by climbing close to 300 m (984 ft) every day over 3,000 m (9,843 ft)

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High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) w Shortness of breath, unreasonable weakness, blue lips and fingernails, mental disarray w Occurs after fast rising over 2,700 m (8,858 ft) w Accumulation of liquid in the lungs which meddles with air development w Cause obscure w Administer supplemental oxygen and move to lower height

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High-Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE) w Mental perplexity, advancing to trance like state and demise w Most cases happen over 4,300 m (14,108 ft) w Accumulation of liquid in cranial hole w Cause obscure w Administer supplemental oxygen and move to lower elevation

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Exercise in a Hyperbaric Environment Pressure submerged is more noteworthy than adrift level, i.e., a hyperbaric situation. As weight builds, gas volume abatements (Boyles' Law). w Descent—outside weight increments and air as of now in the body packs. Climb—air taken in at profundity grows . On the off chance that breath is held while climbing, lungs may overdistend prompting to unconstrained pneumothorax (lungs fall) Medical Problems: Barotrauma – tissue harm brought about by changing weight Gas lethality – CO, O 2 , CO 2 Decompression disorder – N 2 bubble development amid rising

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Cardiovascular Responses to Immersion w Cardiovascular workload diminishes w Plasma volume expands w Heart rate diminishes (considerably more in chilly water) w At a given practice exertion, heart rate is lower

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Ventilation amid Diving Maximal expiratory stream rate Brooks et al., Exercise Physiology, 2000

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VO 2 amid Diving VO 2 amid swimming at 30 m/min at expanding profundities Brooks et al., Exercise Physiology, 2000

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Key Points Breath-Hold Diving w Urge to inhale is because of develop of blood vessel CO 2 . w Gasses in lungs can decrease to no littler than leftover volume. w Depth breaking point is controlled by the TLV:RV proportion. w Individuals with bigger TLV:RV proportions can plunge further than those with littler proportions.

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w Scuba hardware incorporates: – Tank(s) of profoundly compacted air, – First-arrange controller valve to lessen air pressure for breathing, – Second-organize controller that discharges air at weight equivalent to the water, and – One-way breathing valve. Key Points Scuba Diving w A independent submerged breathing mechanical assembly (scuba) pressurizes the air inhaled submerged. w The length of a plunge relies on upon the jumper's profundity.

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Depth Total pressure PO 2 PN 2 (m) (mmHg) (mmHg) (mmHg) 0 760 159 600 10 1,520 318 1,201 20 2,280 477 1,802 30 3,040 636 2,402 Effects of Water Depth on the Partial Pressure of Inspired Oxygen (PO 2 ) and Nitrogen (PN 2 )

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Oxygen Toxicity (Poisoning) w PO 2 values surpass 318 mmHg w Visual bending, fast and shallow breathing, and writhings w Tissues are not ready to expel O 2 from hemoglobin w Hemoglobin is then not ready to evacuate CO 2 w High PO 2 causes vasoconstriction to cerebral vessels

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Decompression Sickness w Results from climbing too quickly w Aching in elbows, shoulders, and knees, can bring about emboli in blood w Nitrogen bubbles get to be distinctly caught in body w Treat by setting jumper in recompression chamber w Prevent by utilizing outline demonstrating time to rise from different profundities

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Hyperbaric (Recompression) Chamber

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Saturation Diving The Navy utilizes a system called immersion plunging to empower jumpers to remain


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