Authentic Ethnobotany The Badianus Codex The Little Book of Herbs

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Recorded Ethnobotany The Badianus Codex – "The Little Book of Herbs"

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The Badianus Codex – "The Little Book of Herbs" Written in 1552 at College of Santa Cruz Written in Nahuatl by Aztec doctor Martin de la Cruz Translated into Latin by Aztec friar named John Badianus de la Cruz likely prepared in Aztec therapeutic practices preceding entry of Cortes in 1521 de la Cruz most likely did the works of art of plants

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Cortes initially meets the Aztecs

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Aztec healer appeared in the Florentine Codex – ca. 1540

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Ohuaxocoyolin – Native intense herb – Probably a begonia - Used to cure Glaucoma

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"The Little Book of Herbs" Detailed portrayals of utilized of 251 plant species Also employments of winged creature, creature blood and body parts Use of different earths Bezoar stones (hard discharges from guts of creatures – primarily ruminants) Other nonherbal substances Many plants utilized were psychoactive and utilized as a part of religious ceremonies and for divination additionally had therapeutic uses

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Peyote – Lophophora williamsii Huichol shaman rub on slices to counteract contamination Found to have anti-infection properties – even against penicillin safe Staphylococcus

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Aztec doctors utilized numerous types of Datura Almost all types of Datura deliver the opiate Stramonium is comprised of: Atropine – impacts heart rate Scopolamine – extensive dosages cause bewilderment, insanity, frothing at the mouth, incredible thirst, dreams, dreamless rest took after by amnesia Hyoscyamine – diminishes muscle fits, sweating

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Nexehuac – Datura ceratocaula Tolohuaxihuitl – Datura innoxia

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Jimson weed - Datura stramonium

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Jimson weed seed container - Datura stramonium

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Aztec alerts about Datura "It hurts one, takes away one's craving, enrages one, makes one besotted. He who eats it will no longer craving nourishment until he might bite the dust. What's more, on the off chance that he eats it decently, he will everlastingly be exasperates, infuriated; he will dependably be controlled, no more drawn out serene." - from the Florentine Codex by Fray Bernadino de Sahagun, ca. 1540

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Belladonna – otherwise known as Deadly nightshade – Atropa belladonna

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Cacao – Theobroma cacao Tlalcacahoatl

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Aztec employments of Cacao Woman making chocolate drink – from Codice Tudela – 16 th century

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Florentine Codex – god going to Cacao eater

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Theobroma cacao

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Cacao leaves and seeds – Theobroma cacao

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Aztecs perceived no less than four assortments of Cacao Cacahoaquiahuit – biggest, bore the biggest natural products, generally seeds. Mecacahoatl – medium tallness, organic products second biggest in size. Xochicacahoatl – littler in stature and with littler organic products with red seeds. Tlalcacahoatl – littlest of all of them and with the littlest organic products. It was thought to make the best drink. Alternate assortments were prized for seeds for cash

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Food Plants

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Contemporary Hunter-Gatherers The San Bushmen

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Torres Straits Islands

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Corn – Zea mays

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Typical Corn Growth

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Typical ear of corn

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Variation in ear size and portion shading from Mexican landraces of corn

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Teosinte – Zea diploperennis

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Ear of teosinte – Zea diploperennis

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Teosinte versus Corn Growth Teosinte Corn

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Zea mays