ASTR 1101-001 Spring 2008

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ASTR 1101-001 Spring 2008 Joel E. Tohline, Alumni Professor 247 Nicholson Hall [Slides from Lecture12]

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Contrasting Models of Planetary Motions Greek Geocentric Model (Ptolemaic System) – §4-1 Originated by Apollonius of Perga & Hipparchus in 2 nd century B.C. Developed by Ptolemy in 2 nd century A.D. Copernican Heliocentric Model – §4-2 Proposed in 1543 by Nicolaus Copernicus (Also considered in 3 rd century B.C. by Aristarchus)

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Contrasting Models of Planetary Motions Geocentric Model Underlying speculation: Earth is unmoving and at "focal point of the universe" Heliocentric Model Preferred (by Copernicus) at first in view of its relative effortlessness Eventually demonstrated right by new perceptions made conceivable by the guide of telescopes (see Galileo's revelations §4-5)

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Naked-Eye Observations "clarified" by both Ptolemy and Copernicus Stars (and Sun, Moon, and so on.) ascend in east and set in west once like clockwork Remove 24-hr diurnal movement; Sun and Moon both move consistently west-to-east at various rates (Moon = month time frame; Sun = year term) Superior planets [Mars, Jupiter, Saturn] for the most part meander gradually east-to-west (watched periods more noteworthy than 1 year) however intermittently show retrograde (west-to-east) movement Inferior planets [Mercury, Venus] never meander exceptionally far (in rakish division) from the Sun; just observed in the blink of an eye before or soon after dawn/dusk

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Galileo's New Observations made with the guide of a telescope (~ 1610) Revolutionary disclosures not particularly applicable to the "geo-" versus "helio-" driven civil argument: Mountains and Craters on the Moon Sunspots on the Sun (ouch!) Rings of Saturn The "Smooth Way" is "a mass of countless stars"

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Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

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Galileo's New Observations made with the guide of a telescope (~ 1610) Revolutionary revelations not particularly important to the "geo-" versus "helio-" driven verbal confrontation: Mountains and Craters on the Moon Sunspots on the Sun (ouch!) Rings of Saturn The "Smooth Way" is "a mass of multitudinous stars"

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Galileo's New Observations made with the guide of a telescope (~ 1610) Revolutionary disclosures not particularly pertinent to the "geo-" versus "helio-" driven level headed discussion: Mountains and Craters on the Moon Sunspots on the Sun (ouch!) Rings of Saturn The "Smooth Way" is "a mass of endless stars"

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Galileo's New Observations made with the guide of a telescope (~ 1610) Revolutionary revelations not particularly significant to the "geo-" versus "helio-" driven open deliberation: Mountains and Craters on the Moon Sunspots on the Sun (ouch!) Rings of Saturn The "Smooth Way" is "a mass of endless stars"

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Galileo's New Observations made with the guide of a telescope (~ 1610) Revolutionary disclosures not particularly pertinent to the "geo-" versus "helio-" driven verbal confrontation: Mountains and Craters on the Moon Sunspots on the Sun (ouch!) Rings of Saturn The Milky Way is "a mass of endless stars"

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Galileo's New Observations made with the guide of a telescope (~ 1610) Discoveries helpful in determining the "geo-" versus "helio-" driven civil argument: Venus displays stages like those of the Moon The clear size of Venus was identified with the planet's stage (and in addition to the planet's precise separation from the Sun) Jupiter has four "Galilean satellites"; their orbital conduct resemble a Copernican framework in smaller than usual

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Galileo's New Observations made with the guide of a telescope (~ 1610) Discoveries valuable in determining the "geo-" versus "helio-" driven verbal confrontation: Venus shows stages like those of the Moon The evident size of Venus was identified with the planet's stage (and in addition to the planet's rakish separation from the Sun) Jupiter has four "Galilean satellites"; their orbital conduct resemble a Copernican framework in scaled down

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Phases of Venus

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Phases of Venus expected in the Coperican Heliocentric model

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Galileo's New Observations made with the guide of a telescope (~ 1610) Discoveries helpful in determining the "geo-" versus "helio-" driven verbal confrontation: Venus displays stages like those of the Moon The obvious size of Venus was identified with the planet's stage (and in addition to the planet's rakish separation from the Sun) Jupiter has four "Galilean satellites"; their orbital conduct resemble a Copernican framework in little

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Angular size " a " communicated in arcseconds .

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Galileo's New Observations made with the guide of a telescope (~ 1610) Discoveries helpful in determining the "geo-" versus "helio-" driven civil argument: Venus displays stages like those of the Moon The clear size of Venus was identified with the planet's stage (and in addition to the planet's rakish separation from the Sun) Jupiter has four "Galilean satellites"; their orbital conduct resemble a Copernican framework in scaled down

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Galileo's New Observations made with the guide of a telescope (~ 1610) First generally new galactic information in very nearly 2000 years! Negated winning supposition (and religious conviction) and firmly proposed a heliocentric (Copernican) structure of the "universe"

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Scientific utility of the Copernican Heliocentric Model Can conclude the genuine "sidereal" (rather than promptly measured "synodic") orbital times of each of the planets [see reading material BOX 4-1 and Table 4-1] Can reason the separation that every planet is from the Sun, in respect to the Earth's separation from the Sun (1 AU); [see course reading examination connected with Table 4-2]

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