Area 5: Limitations

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Segment 5: Limitations

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ISCO Limitations Saturated Zone versus Unsaturated Zone Chemistry CoSolvents Geology/Geochemistry/Hydrogeology NAPL

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ISCO Saturated Zone versus Unsaturated All ISCO are Aqueous Phase Technologies Ozone is additionally an Unsaturated Zone Technology all together for treatment to happen, both the contaminant and the oxidant must be in arrangement together. Permanganate, strong peroxides, initiated sodium persulfate can be utilized to treat the unsaturated zone if zone or soils are hydrated amid treatment. Percent immersed is subject to the contaminant and the dirt sort

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What about Chemistry

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What About CoSolvents All natural Mass is tended to by ISCO Chlorinated Solvents disintegrated into oils by and large carry on as the oil. ( sink or buoy) Cosolvent must be oxidized to decrease target analytes BETX is just a 20% segment of fuel sullying so staying dissolvable must be oxidized

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What About Geology, Geochemistry, and Hydrogeology If you can't contact the contaminant with ISCO you can not treat it. Tight Clays require exceptional treatment Heterogeneity requires extraordinary thought for well areas and screen interims. High Flow Aquifers need to utilize distribution to keep up contact Carbonate arrangements can be dealt with however should be tried for best ISCO approach

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What about NAPL Very once in a while does NAPL exist as free gliding item If NAPL can be recouped adequately, it ought to be NAPL possesses the pore spaces of soil and exists in the colloidal spaces in the dirt Effective fleeting ISCO treatment requires disintegration of the sorbed and NAPL stage in the colloidal spaces with warmth Only peroxide gives that warmth in ISCO Treatments NAPL has been and can be viably and securely treated with ISCO utilizing controlled temperatures at low weights NAPL must be treated with Submerged utilization of chemicals underneath NAPL Zone.

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Total Mass Evaluation Nature of Contamination mass exists in four stages in the defiled zone Soil gas Sorbed Dissolved Non-fluid stage fluid (NAPL) or stage isolated Geochemistry, apportioning coefficient (K ow ) decides the relationship between stages in the immersed zone Majority of mass (regularly >80%) is sorbed and stage isolated Graphic source: Suthersan, 1996

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ISCO Pilot PAH DNAPL SITE, TRENTO, IT Site data Old Petroleum Tar Chemical Distillation Plant Contamination from Closed Treatment Ponds Geology 0 –2 m bgs till, stone and heterogeneous soil with block pieces 2 - 5m silty/sandy soil dark shading and overwhelming hydrocarbon and naphthalene smell, 5 to –14.3 m sandy, 13.30 to 16.30 shading dark w/hydrocarbon smell. Streaming DNAPL tars are available in the last 10 cm. Hydrogeology The water table is –2.7 m bgs yet privately bound

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ISCO PAH DNAPL, TRENTO, IT Pilot Test Area Future Treatment Area

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ISCO PAH DNAPL SITE, TRENTO, IT AW-03 Creek Concrete Wall PZ-01 AW-02 PZ-02 AW-01

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DNAPL Reduction PAH DNAPL SITE, TRENTO, IT Observations Flow was 2 l/min and expanded to 5 l/min after hydrogen Peroxide application through Concurrent Application in All AW's Temperatures were expanded to 40 °C in all AW's All DNAPL was expelled from AW wells and PZ 01 inside 2 days All hydrocarbon smell dispensed with from all wells Secondary signs of Sodium Persulfate Oxidation Activity for 6 weeks Dissolved focuses under 100 ppb and no remaining sheen or NAPL

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DNAPL Reduction PAH DNAPL SITE, TRENTO, IT Observations Controlled Applications of Hydrogen Peroxide can successfully break up a lot of NAPL and Dissolved Mass by fomentation and expansion of warmth at low weight Controlled application at low weight controls movement of NAPL Persistence of Activated Sodium Persulfate devours broke down organics for more than six weeks wiping out repartitioning and bounce back potential. Expansion of extra sodium Persulfate after starting application can be performed before repartitioning of broke up mass.

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Conclusions ISCO and the contaminant must be in an Aqueous answer for fruitful Treatment ISCO can treat all organics ISCO is not specific, it treats all organics including non-target Cosolvents and Natural Occurring Organics ISCO can securely and successfully treat non-recoverable NAPL and anticipates bounce back