Antiquated Stargazing: The Geocentric Perspective

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Chinese, Indians and Mayans likewise knew these examples. Egyptians utilized ... She was killed by ministers who questioned her agnosticism and her soothsaying. ...

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Slide 1

Old Astronomy: The Geocentric View People have been entranced by the night skies since the start of human advancement . Space science must be considered as a real part of the first of the sciences. It was personally related with the advancement of fundamental arithmetic.

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Telling Time and Seasons Sundials were utilized everywhere throughout the world (Egyptian pillar) Crescent moon edges anticipated stormy seasons (Nigeria)

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Special Seasonal Alignments Stonehenge (England - and others) had numerous arrangements for solstices, equinoxes and brilliant stars Sun Dagger (New Mexico) demonstrates twelve on summer solstice; different impacts in winter & equinoxes

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Mesopotamian Astronomy MESOPOTAMIANS fabricated observatories beginning ~6000 years back: the ziggurats had seven levels, one for each wandering object in the sky: Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn Thus 7 days to the week They followed stars - bunches ascending before sun at different times of year suggested regular beginnings for planting and gathering (zodiac). Partitioned hovers in 360 degrees, each degree into a hour and each minute into 60 seconds - despite everything we utilize! Left composed records in cuneform so we comprehend them better

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Mesopotamian Astronomy and Influence By 2000 BC Ur and other Sumerian and Babylonia urban communities had vast sanctuaries, or ziggurats, generally adjusted N-S, as most Egyptian pyramids Egyptian and Mesopotamian information spread to Europe, Asia and Africa

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Other Ancient Accomplishments Mesopotamians could anticipate planetary positions - synodic periods, e.g., Mars comes back to same area generally every 780 days: 22 synodic periods = 47 years, so records of old planetary positions could give great areas. Thought about the SAROS cycle 2700 years prior: lunar obscurations certainly happened at regular intervals. Chinese, Indians and Mayans additionally knew these examples Egyptians utilized cosmic occasions to gauge Nile surges and reap times.

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PEER INSTRUCTION QUESTION You see a first Quarter moon around 45 above the Eastern skyline. The time is roughly: A. noon B. 3 PM C. 6 PM D. 9 PM E. 3 AM

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PEER INSTRUCTION QUESTION You see a first Quarter moon around 45 above the Eastern skyline. The time is roughly: A. noon B. 3 PM C. 6 PM D. 9 PM E. 3 AM first Quarter Moon ascends at twelve, most astounding at 6PM and sets at midnight (generally)

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Greek Astronomy: The Earth at the Center While they may have based upon Egyptian & Mesopotamian comes about (very little safeguarded past date-books and introduction of sanctuaries), Greeks attempted to EXPLAIN and UNDERSTAND, not simply PREDICT based upon redundant cycles of movements. Thales (624- - 547 BCE) was guaranteed to have predicted a sun powered overshadowing. Anaxamander (611- - 547 BCE) of Miletus (Asia Minor) delivered a model: Earth as a barrel, Sun, Moon and stars are fire filled wheels - precursor of non-legendary clarifications.

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Early Greek Ideas of the Cosmos Anaximenes of Miletus (585- - 526 BCE) trusted stars were settled to a strong, crystalline vault encompassing the Earth - the idea of the Celestial Sphere. Pythagoras (582- - 500 BCE) and his understudies in Croton (S. Italy) contended that: Earth and all wonderful bodies are impeccable SPHERES . Every single divine movement were immaculate CIRCLES . By then, it was comprehended that moonshine was reflected daylight. Eudoxus (408- - 355 BCE) had planets proceeding onward different circles, all encompassing the Earth. These could clarify RETROGRADE LOOPS in the circles of MARS, JUPITER and SATURN - however didn't represent differing qualities thereof or for varieties in shine of planets, since their separation from Earth was settled.

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Planets generally go in same course as stars however at various velocities. Yet, some of the time go in reverse. Mars in fundamental figure and time slip by of a few planets (in planetarium) above. Greek Model Retrograde Loops

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Heavenly Spheres: Geocentrism Earth at Center, then Moon Mercury Venus Sun Mars Jupiter Saturn Fixed stars on the divine circle

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Aristotle: "The Authority" Aristotle (384- - 322 BCE) gave PROOFS that the Earth was SPHERICAL: objects all fell towards its middle yet opposite to ground  circle (yet it could in any case be a chamber). Noted shadows cast on moon amid overshadowing were constantly round - they some of the time wouldn't be if the earth were plate like (or tube shaped). In any case, he additionally contended that since everything fell toward the earth, it was the heaviest thing around, in this way it shouldn't move - EARTH at CENTER of the UNIVERSE - the GEOCENTRIC COSMOS This was unquestionably LOGICAL, yet in no way, shape or form a PROOF (as he thought it seemed to be). His conclusions on this and numerous different subjects which he concentrated on and expounded on were viewed as legitimate between twelfth & seventeenth hundreds of years in the Western world.

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Aristarchus: Real Distance Measurements Aristarchus (310- - 230 BCE) of Samos connected Euclid's geometry to get the separation to the Moon. The precise breadth is measured straightforwardly; the direct width originates from perceiving the amount of the Earth's shadow the moon possesses amid a lunar overshadowing (around 3/8). In the event that the Earth's width is known, this permits the Moon's to be found at around 3/8ths of Earth's. Utilized geometry to gauge that the Sun was 19 times more distant than the Moon (19 times bigger, since precise sizes are the same). Aristarchus then could gauge that Sun was around 7 times the measurement of the Earth (19 x 3/8) THIS LED HIM TO PROPOSE A HELIOCENTRIC COSMOLOGY - with the BIG SUN at REST, SMALL EARTH MOVING AROUND IT. His lunar size was excessively enormous and his separation to the sun much too little, due to off base estimations, yet the strategies were sharp and were significant advances .

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Lunar Eclipse Geometry

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Ancient Objections to a Heliocentric Picture A moving earth ought to yield an intense wind that would brush us off. Stars didn't demonstrate quantifiable parallax (Greeks couldn't consider them being SO much further away than planets). It beyond any doubt appears as though we're stopping and everything in the sky is moving, isn't that right?

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The Size of the Earth Eratosthenes (276- - 195 BCE) utilized geometry and simple cosmology to make an exact measurement of the Earth's range. He understood the distinction in the elevation of the noonday Sun in Syene and Alexandria measured up to the scope contrast between the urban areas. That gave the proportion: outline of the Earth/360  = remove/7.2  Accuracy controlled by separation in stadia - measured by foot and dubious, however around 40,000 km, and presumably great to 10% (Correct esteem: 40,074 km or 24,890 miles)

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Eratosthenes' Measurement 7.2 O/360 O = Alexandria- - Syene separate/Earth perimeter

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Stellar Catalogs and Precession Hipparchus (190- - 125 BCE) used Aristarchus' technique to persuade the Moon to be 59 Earth radii away (60 is right!) He improved an estimation of the length of the year. Hipparchus additionally observed a NOVA and this made him make a CATALOG of brilliant stars. Contrasting his areas with those recorded around 170 years before he found a distinction of around 2 degrees, and reasoned that there was PRECESSION - his gauge of a 28,000 year time frame was great .

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Ptolemy: The Peak of Greek Astronomy Ptolemy worked in Alexandria from 127- - 151 CE. As a geographer, he is the first known to have utilized scope and longitude on earth. His cosmology book, " " - megiste - or ``The Greatest'' - Arabic name: Almagest. Index of more than 1000 stars w/brightnesses, utilizing the MAGNITUDE SYSTEM. Ptolemy's impact on space science was massive for he distributed a nitty gritty GEOCENTRIC MODEL. (It's not clear what amount was unique to him.)

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Improved Geocentric Model

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Detailed Geocentric Model Ptolemy demonstrated the basic arrangement of Hipparchus, with only a DEFERENT and EPICYCLE was inadequate. His model included an EQUANT - the movement of the center of the epicycle is uniform just if saw from the equant. Be that as it may, Ptolemy's most prominent commitment was the publication of his content, a synopsis of all prior Greek cosmic learning. While complex, IT WORKED (to the precision the Greeks could quantify) and was USED for 1500 years! Positively OPERATIONALLY fruitful.

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"Progressed" Geocentric Model

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Arabic Astronomy & Knowledge Transmission Hypatia (370- - 415 CE) of Alexandria, fabricated better instruments and made more precise positional estimations. She was killed by ministers who questioned her agnosticism and her crystal gazing. After the blazing of the Alexandria library and the fall of Rome, Astronomy in Europe shriveled, with just parts of Greek and Roman information held. The ascent of Islam (esp. the need to know course to Mecca) prompted to huge observatories in Samarkand, Persia, Turkey and inevitably Spain with more cautious perceptions and enhanced instruments. Huge inventories were delivered: more stars, more exact areas Greek and Indian information (e.g., zero) were joined and protected in focuses like Baghdad .

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Turkish and Chinese Instruments Angles and relative places of stars and planets were measured and recorded, as were "new stars"

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How was watchful perception of the sky utilized as a part of early societies? To decide the seasons To choose when to plant products To explore on long voyages All of the above 1 and 2 just

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How was cautious perception of the sky utilized as a part of early societies? To decide the seasons To choose when to plant yields To explore on long voyages All of the above 1 and 2 just