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2. Oceanic ENGLISH sub-registers . set dialects (SeaSpeak and IMO Standard Phrases ) shipbuilding, seamanship, load taking care of, meteorology and oceanography, marine designing, power, hardware, robotization, port operations, marine contamination, wellbeing of life adrift, universal tenets and regulations, marine protection, shipping, business exchanges, cooking and tourism. .

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MARITIME ENGLISH sub-registers set dialects ( SeaSpeak and IMO Standard Phrases ) shipbuilding, seamanship, payload taking care of, meteorology and oceanography, marine designing, power, hardware, robotization, port operations, marine contamination, security of life adrift, universal guidelines and controls, marine protection, shipping, business exchanges, cooking and tourism.

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ME: The State of the Art practically nothing, assuming any, thought about ME explore nearly non-existent no field-particular corpora accessible

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Maritime English Pedagogic Corpus (MEPC) materials/writings determination of particular 'lexical fields' and sub-registers dialect utilized as a part of the significant field writing "delegate" of the kind of English utilized and acknowledged as "certified" in an informed talk group living and working in a sea domain outside the English-talking nations, perhaps a specimen of ELF approved by Italian experts working in the sea field commonplace ESP expository capacities

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The product WinATA (Aston Text Analyser) FREQUENCY and RANGE (Heatley, Nation and Coxhead, 2002) WordClassifier (Denies, Goethals and EET Project Team, 1996)

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Corpus insights

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Stages in the examination Stage1 Producing a recurrence list Comparing the MEPC most regular "words" with the ones from different records Identifying the capacity words not/present in the corpus Finding the scope of the most widely recognized words Stage 2 Identifying the " sea' lexical things in the corpus Analyzing the primary components of the 'field particular' lexical things. Grouping the specialized "words"

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The most and the slightest continuous words crosswise over various records The 50 most incessant words General Service List (GSL) adapted from West by Bauman ( ) Cambridge International Corpus (CIC) 330,000 expressions of composed information The COBUILD Bank of English 196 million expressions of composed corpus

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ME "vocabulary" Hardly novel 'fundamentally' Mainly 'general words' going up against various implications and parts through: polysemy and homonymy exacerbating

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GE/ME contrasts – "Movements" in: which means (bank, floor, air draft , port) linguistic capacities: modifiers or relational words - > descriptive words from verbs - > things (after) (bow?) Polysemy and homonymy 1/fifth of different types

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In signifying "bank" -a money related establishment -the bank of a waterway -a 'bank of haze' -a 'line of items' (e.g. a bank of paddles, a bank of tubes ). " floor' -a flat subdivision in a building -a vertical plate in the ship base. " air draft' -an ebb and flow of air -the greatest stature of the ship's parts over the water surface. "port" -a fake harbor, -a " opening' in the frame -the " left' half of the ship. In syntactic capacities " bow' GE: - thing (a bunch with two circles, a weapon or a gadget for playing a melodic instrument) - verb (demonstrating a body movement) ME: - thing (the fore end of a ship) "after" GE: - time relater (relational word/modifier) ME: - descriptive word (the after end of the ship). " Shifts'

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Compounding (1) Usual sorts of association thing in addition to thing e.g. counterweight water, radio officer display participle in addition to thing e.g. mooring ropes, exploring cadet past participle in addition to thing e.g. packed air, I-molded shaft

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Compounding (2) Common semantic connections ( Blakey, 1987: 146)

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descriptive words ( profound tank, twofold base, forecastle, parallel center body, solid pillar, upper deck) nominalised modifiers ( deck longitudinals ) descriptive mixes ( oil tight, watertight ) switch blends ( profundity shaped, length in general) ordinal numbers (first mate, third architect) relational words ('tween deck, upkeep, update ) the names of seasons ( summer stack line ) formal people, places or things transformed into basic things ( jacob's stepping stool, samson post ) eponyms or names of innovators to portray an item ( Diesel motor, Beaufort scale, Plimsoll marks ) put names to show an imperative occasion or tradition ( York-Antwerp Convention, Florida Act ) land names ( North Atlantic loadline ) Compounding (3)

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Compounding (5) poly-words One word (bulkhead, shipowner) Spaces in the middle of (water balance, section floor) Hyphens (I-bar) Prepositions ( round of deck, turn of the bilge, length between perpendiculars ) Possessive case ( Ship's Cook) Combined gadgets ( men-of-war) settled collocations with 'particular unitary signifying'

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ME multi-word things - settled collocations with 'specific unitary signifying' - gather data (Hatch & Brown,1995:191) make new implications not the same as the one of each of the parts making up a mix (Barlow,1996:12) make "novel" implications are the main satisfactory referential structures accessible to indicate zones of experience shared by the objective oceanic group (there exist no different words to indicate the ideas they speak to) don't serve different edges of reference are to be considered as single words (however composed with hyphens or with spaces in the middle of) have stable connections having solidified into settled structures can be viewed as extraordinary types of settled collocation (Becker, 1975: 8; Schmitt and McCarthy, 1997:43)

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Other pertinent lexical angles clippings ( bosun for boatswain , f'c'sl for forecastle ), introduction (A.B.S.) acronyms (SOLAS: Safety Of Life At Sea, MARPOL: MARine POLlution).

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Metaphors Metaphorical utilization of creature names in settled collocations with 'particular unitary signifying' ( feline's walk , canine watch, crow's home, donkeyman) Metaphorical utilization of the dialect regarding "deliver" (she/her - >backbone, ribs)

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Field-particular borrowings (Eckersley, & Eckersley, 1960: 417-432 ) commander, naval force, officer (French) freight, kayak, niña (Spanish) stay (Greek) chief of naval operations (Arabic) yacht, float, structure, dock, voyage (Dutch) tornado, tropical storm (Caribbean) tidal wave (Japanese)

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ME lexical grouping Few "one of a kind" field particular lexical things Lexical things additionally having a place with other ESP fields Multi-word sense portions or mixes ('regular words' happening together to shape one of a kind 'field particular single implications') Polysemes and homonyms ('normal words' utilized with extraordinary "interesting" implications in the casing of reference) Function words and general administration words

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THE PEDAGOGIC WASH-BACK more prominent consideration regarding the most incessant and to the minimum continuous words in the writings an alternate approach in outlining learning errands 'sense-fragment based lexical exercises' coordinating 'old words' to 'new implications' investigating the 'various implications' of words dissecting and controlling the diverse connections and blends

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Activity 1: Look at the accompanying table and choose what is the significance "obviously" in the distinctive cases

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Activity 2: Read the accompanying illustrations and figure the diverse implications of the word " current' in setting. At that point check by utilizing a lexicon. Assess present, adjacent port and sea tempest safe house areas that might be considered for tropical violent wind shirking. Current and lighting are provided by the generators. Winds of tropical storm compel contradicting any sea ebb and flow can rapidly make exceptionally steep, brief period waves. Plot current/conjecture places of all dynamic/suspected tropical twister movement. The administration speed and also the ideal size of tanker is particularly identified with current market financial matters. The creating storm floats westwards with the current of free air and it veers off from the equator in the wake of touching base at the western edge of the semi-changeless "high" The present condition of nature is a standout amongst the most difficult issues confronting humankind today.

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Activity 3: Find the diverse uses and implications of the word " in the wake of' utilizing a lexicon. At that point read the accompanying 'bits of sentences' and recognize the distinctive implications.

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Activity 4:All the words recorded underneath contain "transport" , yet there are two odd-words-out . Cross them out and propel your choice. Give a case to each word . Make an interpretation of the words into Italian.

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Activity 5: Identify the connections in the accompanying mixes and fill in the table after pinnacle tank barrel cover salt water needle valve I-pillar deliver proprietor wheelhouse storeroom entrance steam turbine water plant hand pump steam turbine air-pad Beaufort wind scale port operations

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Activity 6: Form mixes out of the accompanying definitions a ship that was intended to convey holders ______________________________________________ the chain of the anchor ______________________________________________ the room where the motors are found _______________________________________________ a motor driven by steam _______________________________________________ a motor designed by Rudolf Diesel _______________________________________________ the tanks situated in the fore peak _______________________________________________ the spreads on the hatches _______________________________________________ a bulkhead made of steel _______________________________________________ the papers of the ship _______________________________________________ a bar molded like the letter H _______________________________________________

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Activity 7: "Gapped" mixes - Complete the compound words in this entry.

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