# Airstream Mechanisms

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﻿Airstream Mechanisms October 6, 2010

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Administrative Stuff Remember: creation practice #1 is expected at 5 pm today. Next Wednesday: a test! This Friday: hone interpretation practice on place of verbalization. This was presented on the site yesterday evening.

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Linguolabials are shaped by touching the sharp edge of the tongue to the upper lip. Cases from V'enen Taut, a dialect talked in Vanuatu (the South Pacific): Check out Britney!

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Back to Aerodynamics Remember: sounds are made by the stream of air All of the discourse sounds that we've taken a gander at so far have a pulmonic egressive airstream component. = air pushed out of the lungs Aerodynamic technique #1: Stops begin wind current stop wind stream discharge wind stream

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Step 1: Starting Air Flow We make wind current by making contrasts in pneumatic stress Air streams normally from ranges of high weight to regions of low weight Think: popping an inflatable Q: How would we make gaseous tension contrasts?

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Boyle's Law A consistent amount of gas (at a steady temperature) obeys what is called Boyle's Law The weight of the gas in the chamber is… conversely relative to the volume of gas in the chamber Pressure (of gas in a chamber) = steady esteem volume of chamber P = k/V Robert Boyle (1627-1691)

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Boyle's Implications  Pressure can be expanded or diminished by changing the volume of the chamber Basic wind stream methodology: Decreasing volume  builds weight Increasing volume  diminishes weight Pulmonic egressive sounds: = wind currents out of lungs into nature  Air weight must be higher in lungs than outside of body  started by diminishing volume of lungs Q: Pulmonic ingressive sounds?

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Pulmonic Ingressive Sounds? In the 1980s, a lingo of Tsou was found which made utilization of pulmonic ingressive sounds. Tsou is talked in southern Taiwan.

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Pulmonic Ingressive Sounds? The presence of pulmonic ingressives in Tsou was questioned by Ladefoged and Zeitoun (1993) They tried the claim with the accompanying techniques: Having speakers breathe in smoke before making the sounds. Setting a straw in the speaker's mouth with the flip side of the straw in a dull fluid. Amid the generation of the sounds: Smoke was breathed out Bubbles showed up in the fluid ...for everything except one speaker.

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Other Airstream Mechanisms It is conceivable to move air all through the vocal tract without moving air all through the lungs. Here's one strategy: Close the glottis (glottal stop) Make a stop conclusion over the glottis Important: these two terminations cut off a council of air over the glottis.  Boyle's Law applies.

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Glottalic Egressives Raise the glottis This packs the air in the supraglottal pit Release the stop conclusion Air surges out of the vocal tract From high weight to low weight Release the glottal conclusion Air surges out of the lungs Making a glottal stop Sounds which are made thusly utilize a glottalic egressive airstream system.

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Ejectives Sounds made with a glottalic egressive airstream system are otherwise called ejectives . Ejectives are symbolized with a ['] taking after an image for a stop. [ap'a] [at'a] [ak'a] To make an ejective… Try making stops while holding your breath. On the other hand, mimic Elaine from Seinfeld: "that is correct!"

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Quechua, again Ejectives are found in around 18% of the world's dialects, including Quechua.

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Deep Thought Questions Q1: Is it conceivable to make a voiced ejective? No. (They are unattested.) Q2: Is it less demanding to make an ejective at a few spots of enunciation than others? Here are the numbers (UPSID information): Bilabials: 34 [p'] Alveolar: 50 [t'] Palatal: 7 [c'] Velar: 70 [k'] Uvular: 27 [q']

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Glottalic Ingressives It's additionally conceivable to make glottalic ingressive sounds. Truth be told, you most likely definitely know how. Here's the manner by which you do it: Make a stop conclusion over the glottis. Unite (adduct) the vocal folds. This makes a shut assembly of air over the glottis. Bring down the glottis Air hurries through the glottis Voicing happens

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Implosives Lowering the larynx additionally grows the glottis chamber over the glottis This decreases pneumatic force over the glottis. Step 4: Release stop conclusion above glottis. Air hurries into the mouth. ...since gaseous tension was higher outside the mouth than inside the mouth. Sounds which are made with a glottalic ingressive airstream instrument are known as implosives . Implosives are symbolized with an upper snare on a stop symbol:

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Sindhi Implosives Sindhi is talked in India.

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Familiar (?) Implosives are found in a few vernaculars of American English In the South Some parts of the Midwest/Midlands district Consider: 'Bama duh! Gulping exaggeration: A previous understudy:

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Implosive Stats Implosives happen in around 10% of the world's dialects Not exactly as regular as ejectives Q: Should a few spots of explanation be more helpful for making implosives than others? Implosives are all the more much of the time found at fronter spots of enunciation Bilabial: 39 Palatal: 7 Alveolar: 36 Velar: 5 Retroflex: 1 Uvular: 1

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Another Thought Question Is it conceivable to make a voiceless implosive? Yes, however they are exceedingly uncommon. They are just found in around three dialects. Vocal folds must remain firmly shut as the larynx is pushed down. Vocal overlay conclusion keeps voicing from happening.

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Voiceless implosives are found in Igbo, a dialect talked in Nigeria

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Velaric Ingressive Sounds It's conceivable to make velaric ingressive sounds. To begin with make a stop conclusion at the velum, alongside another stop conclusion before the velum. This makes a shut council of air between the velum and the forward stop conclusion.

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Velaric Ingressives Step 2: Expand the shut council of air by bringing down the tongue. The pneumatic stress in the shut chamber diminishes.

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Velaric Ingressives Step 3: Release the forward stop conclusion. Air hurries into the mouth From high weight (outside) to low weight (inside) The surge of air makes an uproarious "clicking" sound

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Velaric Ingressives Step 4: Release the velar stop conclusion. This could possibly bring about a velar stop discharge burst.

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Click Examples Clicks can be made at five better places of explanation. Dialects which utilize clicks as contrastive sounds are only found in southern and focal Africa. Especially in the Khoisan dialects

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!Xoo Examples !Xoo (talked in Botswana) contrasts clicks at all five spots of verbalization Note that !Xoo is additionally a tone dialect. By tradition, a [k] shows up before all snap sounds, to speak to the velar conclusion.

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Click Places

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Click Cues All snaps are high in acoustic force i.e., noisy Alveolar and palatal snaps have a transient (short) discharge Dental and bilabial snaps have an affricated discharge Lateral snaps are some place in the middle of

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Clicks in associated discourse If you listen to clicks as they are delivered in a long arrangement of associated discourse, you may encounter a wonder known as perceptual gushing . Sound record source: http://www.rdg.ac.uk/%7Ellsroach/fue/

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Deep Thought Questions #1: Is it conceivable to make a voiced snap? Yes. #2: Is it conceivable to make a suctioned click? Kind of. #3: Is it conceivable to make a nasal snap? Yes. #4: Is it conceivable to make an ejective snap? Kind of. Going with verbalizations might be made in conjunction with the snap's velar conclusion.

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Zulu Clicks Zulu is talked in South Africa.

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Zhu|hoasi Clicks Zhu|hoasi is talked in Namibia and Botswana.

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Airstream Summary Airflow Pulmonic Glottalic Velaric OUT fricatives, ejectives unattested (egressive) vowels, stops, and so on. IN (Tsou) implosives clicks (ingressive)