Address 26: Social Crisis and Absolutism

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Address 26: Social Emergency and Absolutism. - Period somewhere around 1560 and 1650 is toward absolutism (complete control by governments) - Thirty Years' War (1618-48) results from dynastic competitions among German sovereigns and craving of European forces to

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Address 26: Social Crisis and Absolutism

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- Period in the vicinity of 1560 and 1650 is toward absolutism (finish control by governments) - Thirty Years' War (1618-48) comes about because of dynastic contentions among German rulers and craving of European forces to limit force of the Holy Roman Empire and decision Austrian Habsburg family - Four stages: Palatine-Bohemian (1618-25); Danish (1625-29); Swedish (1630-35) and French (1636-48) - Phase I : revolt in Protestant Bohemia against Austrian rulers (Catholics) brings about Austrian annihilation; Phase II : Denmark enters war against residual Austrians; Phase III : Sweden under Gustavus Adolphus joins Protestants yet are crushed by Catholic France which joins war to restrict Austria's partner, Spain; Phase IV : French get Alsace and Sweden gets Baltic regions under Treaty of Westphalia (1648)

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- After 1648, force of Spain and Austria decays, ); German principalities turn out to be more self-ruling; populace of German states diminished by 1/3 therefore of war; 15-20% of European population pass on from furnished clash, starvation and infection - Power of rulers combined after 1648, in spite of dissent of bourgeoisie which rebels against high charges ( La Fronde ) - 1661 Louis XIV reports he will be his own particular first priest, rules France despotically for next 54 rules; turns into the symbol of the Age of Absolutism - Jansenists unsuccessfully react to Louis' strength over the Catholic Church (ideal to name pastorate, and so on.) - Palace of Versailles was Louis' landmark to his overabundance

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- Louis denies Edict of Nantes which since 1598 had permitted Protestants to venerate lawfully; French Huguenot evangelists are expelled from France; love prohibited, meeting houses demolished; 200-300,000 Huguenots (craftsmans, scholarly people, army officers) leave France - Louis drives France into four expensive wars, all with point of reduc- ing force of the Habsburgs and developing French wildernesses: 1667 Louis claims Spanish Netherlands, France loses war with Spain yet picks up 11 invigorated stations on its northeastern outskirts - 1672 Louis assaults the Dutch Republic; following six years of war, gains Franche-Comte on eastern boondocks and 12 new towns; 1689 coalition of forces powers Louis to quit adding regions - Charles II of Spain, with no immediate beneficiaries, wills his kingdom to grandson of Louis VIX, Philip of Anjou, lighting War of Spanish Succession on the grounds that different forces fear an extended France

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- War of Spanish progression proceeds for a long time (1701-14); ended by Peace of Utrecht (1713, however battling goes ahead until 1714); Philip of Anjou affirmed as leader of Spain - Spain: in the vicinity of 1550 and 1650, Spain has the biggest realm in the world; led by Spanish Habsburg administration - Son of Philip II, Philip IV, drains the treasury and removes remaining Moriscos, which diminishes work and leases - Internal revolts take after misfortunes following Thirty Years' War, and over-exhausted subjects revolt - Italian states: after 1559 led by Philip II of Spain since his father was the Holy Roman Emperor; until 1715, just Florence, Venice and the Papal States are generally autonomous; much persecution of savvy people after the Catholic Reformation; Austria replaces Spain as predominant influence

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- German states: 300 German realms in upper east, administered by Hohenzollern family; by 1609 include arrive along Rhine, later Duchy of Prussia, so that Brandenburg-Prussia is three separated land masses in western, focal and eastern Germany; after 1648 Peace Conference at Westphalia, B-P increases touching border controlled by Frederick William the Elector - Frederick William raises armed force to more than 40,000 men, battles with nobility yet give them total control over the laborers, no taxation and most astounding positions in the armed force ("Junkers") - Frederick William makes commission which gathers new excise charges, new mechanical and business endeavors - Follows mercantilist strategies of high duties, sponsorships and monopolies for producers; welcomes migration and French Huguenots settle in Prussia

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- Habsburgs: after loss of Spanish and German terrains, tradition turns to East and Southeast Europe, endeavors to venture into areas held by Ottoman Empire - 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz gives Habsburgs control of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia and Slovenia; after War of Spanish Succession, Austria gets Spanish Netherlands, Milan, Mantua, Sardinia and Naples; by start of 1700's, Archduke of Austria is likewise King of Bohemia and Hungary - Habsburg Empire is only accumulation of regions, each with its possess laws, national congregations and political life - Russia: by 17 th century would rise as a present day country state under Peter the Great (1689-1725); endeavors to move Russia from primitive, medieval state with landed get together ( Zemsky Sobor ) to current state

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Europe c. 1557

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- After visit to West in 1697, Peter makes schools of war, outside affairs, equity, and so on to supplant Sobor ; isolates Russian into provinces; assembles standing armed force of 210,000 men who serve for a long time - All landholders required to serve in either government or armed force; Peter makes Table of Ranks which gives non-nobles capacity to serve the state and in the end increase honorable status - Peter endeavors to control intense Russian Orthodox Church by creating a Holy Synod lead by layman who answered to Peter - Peter assaults Sweden in endeavor to increase warm water port, picks up Estonia, Livonia and Karelia - 1703 Peter starts to manufacture St. Petersburg on marshland close northern Baltic – capital until Revolution of 1917 (and again now)

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- Scandinavia: by 1600's Sweden gets to be distinctly autonomous from Denmark; both then battle about region in northern Europe - Denmark, unsuccessful in 30 Years' War and war with Sweden, have protected emergency which prompts to brought together administra- tion with honorability as boss officeholders - Sweden: Gustavus Adolphus (1611-32) augments focal represent ment and makes more steady government; kicks the bucket in fight - His little girl, Christina abandons for her cousin, Charles X 91654-60); Charles XI (1660-97) makes a flat out government - By 1697, Sweden a more bureaucratic, monarchial state with improved armed force and naval force and repressed parliament and church - By 1718, Charles XII loses a large portion of its northern realm to Russia, becomes useless state

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- Witchcraft: oppression of witches, frequently more seasoned, single women or dowagers continues in quite a bit of Europe - Pope Innocent VIII sends Dominican ministers to Germany to investigate witchcraft; The Hammer of Witches (standard handbook on routine of witchcraft and how to distinguish a witch) is distributed (1486) - 100,000 individuals arraigned for witchcraft; for all intents and purposes all casualties belonged to the lower classes, were poor and propertyless - Persecution of witches may have created as the aftereffect of uncertainties and religious ambiguities made by the Reformation, and additionally individual reprisal

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