A History of Correctional Standards

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. David K. TaylorExecutive DirectorCorrectional Accreditation Managers\' Associationwww.mycama.orgcama.ed@earthlink.net.

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A History of Correctional Standards

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David K. Taylor Executive Director Correctional Accreditation Managers' Association www.mycama.org cama.ed@earthlink.net

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"The past has much to educate us regarding the present. Just by thinking once more into history would we be able to completely grasp why certain social ideas and models are acknowledged today." Manual of Correctional Standards American Correctional Association Revised, 1965

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Why Standards? Enactment Court Decisions Desire for Excellence

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The Origin - Principles National Prison Association Declaration of Principles – 1870 Thirty-seven articulations which were general and reflected philosophical rules for the administration of a jail.

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NY Jail Regulations - 1944 Separate repression of classes of detainees Held for trial or examination Serving sentences Civil detainees and witnesses Further division by sexual orientation and age (16 – 20, 21 and over) Children under 16 not allowed to be limited in a correctional facility

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Facility prerequisites A steel entryway, flame broiled or plate with barbecued perception opening at the fundamental passageway All windows secured with a forceful screen of ½" work to avoid going of stash Wire coat holders not allowed in cells Exterior all around lit during the evening Windows coated with translucent glass Paint not utilized on windows

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Administration Money, watches, and different assets taken from detainees guarded in the workplace Thorough hunt of detainees Careful sensor of all approaching and active mail Prisoners ought not have admittance to windows Key to the principle passageway ought not be taken inside Firearms and blackjacks not allowed inside

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All kitchen utensils left in the wreckage lobby or came back from cells Frequent investigations of locking gadgets Frequent quests of cells All entryways kept bolted "Don't put excessively dependence on jolts and bars. A correctional facility is no more grounded than the human component in control"

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Food Service Sufficient amount of plain however wholesome sustenance Three dinners a day arranged under the supervision of a non military personnel cook Menu ought to be fluctuated Inmates aiding nourishment planning ought to be guaranteed by the correctional facility doctor

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Medical Care A respectable doctor doled out to the prison Prisoners inspected at the earliest opportunity upon confirmation Medical isolation for infectious detainees Food, garments, and bedding kept separate for sick prisoners Jail officers may not recommend drugs Physician ought to keep records in ink of all visits and medications Hospital mind by request of the province judge Reasonable measure of outside exercise, climate allowing

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Cleanliness and Sanitation All structures appropriately warmed, lit and ventilated Toilet and restroom in every cell At minimum one shower in each segment of all floors (females ought to have tub shower) Adequate hot and cool water Toilet paper and towels furnished Walls painted with light shading, hard-surfaced paint

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Cells kept clean at all circumstances Beds made in the morning No checking on dividers or pictures glued on dividers Corridors kept free of litter One bunk in every cell with sleeping pad, two sheets, pad with slip, covers (changed week by week) Prisoners to bathe quickly upon affirmation, then in any event week after week Clothing washed week by week

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Discipline Only discipline allowed is isolation on bread and water Formulate an arrangement of principles and post them No "Kangaroo Courts" Misc. A Bible should be kept in each room No officer may acknowledge a blessing or tip from a detainee, relative, or other individual, nor may an officer buy something from a detainee

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Judicial Involvement – Coffin v. Reichard, 143, F.2d, 443 (6 th Cir. 1944) Appellant contended in a writ for habeas corpus that he had endured harm and was subjected to attacks while restricted. The court decided that "His conviction and imprisonment deny him just of such freedoms as the law has appointed he should languish over his transgressions." This case set up that the legislature has an obligation to secure detainees.

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U.S. v. Muniz and Winston, 374 U.S. 150; 83 S. Ct. 1850 (1963) Two detainees endured harm while limited in government penitentiaries, and both sued for harms. The U.S. Preeminent Court held that the 1946 Federal Tort Claims Act, which approves claims for carelessness against government specialists, is pertinent to prisoners in elected care.

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Morrisey v. Brewer, 408 U.S. 471; 92 S. Ct. 2593 (1972) Due process applies to parole repudiation, and the wrongdoer is qualified for a hearing. Gagnon v. Scarpelli, 411 U.S. 778; 93 S. Ct. 1756 (1973) A probationer is qualified for a preparatory hearing and a last repudiation hearing. Wolff v. McDonnell, 418 U.S. 539; 94 S. Ct. 2963 (1974) Following Morrisey and Scarpelli, the Supreme Court decided that detainees are qualified for due process in disciplinary hearings.

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Estelle v. Bet, 429 U.S. 97; 97 S. Ct. 285 (1976) A Texas detainee (Gamble) supported wounds amid a work detail. Bet got insignificant therapeutic treatment, and was in the long run requested back to work disregarding his claims that he required further treatment. Bet was given in confinement for declining something to do. The US Supreme Court decided that "… consider lack of interest to genuine medicinal needs of detainees constitutes the 'pointless and wanton punishment of agony'" and was subsequently an infringement of the 8 th alteration.

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Plata v. Schwarzenegger – Class activity Finding of Facts and Conclusions of Law re. Arrangement of Receiver. "All in all, the California jail restorative care framework is broken hopeless. The mischief effectively done for this situation to California's jail prisoner populace couldn't be more grave, and the danger of future damage and passing is for all intents and purposes ensured without intense activity." Judge Thelton E. Henderson, United States District Court for the Northern District of California, October 3, 2005

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Standards for different expert interests got to be distinctly famous in the 1940's and 1950's. American Bar Association American Medical Association JCAH(O) - 1951 National Probation and Parole Association National Prison Association A Manual of Suggested Standards for a State Correctional System, 1946 A Manual of Correctional Standards, 1959

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National Probation and Parole Association Standard Juvenile Court Act – 1926 Standard Probation and Parole Act - 1955 Standards and Guides for the Detention of Youth and Children - 1958 Standard Act for State Correctional Services – 1966 Model Act for the Protection and Rights of Prisoners - 1972

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Manual of Correctional Standards - 1965 Community Detention (Jail) Facilities Community Correctional Institution Camps Adult Probation Parole and Other Release Community Correctional Centers Correctional Institutions

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JAIL STANDARDS - 1965 State Supervision – states ought to be able to set measures for prisons, endorse rules, support arranges, audit spending plans. Cells – 50 square feet, 8 feet high. Ought to contain can, wash bowl, rack sort table, divider section situate, little retire, and "a couple of solid snares". Lodging Units – 75 square feet for each prisoner, including cells and day rooms. Levels ought to be evaded.

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Personnel – Training and remuneration ought to be tantamount with comparable callings, (for example, police). Preparing – "key to prison change" Training on state or local level Training officer for bigger ( >10 workers) correctional facilites (FTO ?) Correspondence course – 10 lesson course offered free from Federal Bureau of Prisons

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Custody/Security/Control – 24 hour supervision by prison staff Positive arrangement of key control Tool control – shadow sheets Regular checks – min. 4 for each 24 hours Control of visits and mail Discipline – whipping and eating regimen limitations precluded

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Food – Caloric necessities and healthful models set by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council. Focal lounge area with cafeteria benefit. "Doctor's facility sort cleanliness" in the kitchen, nourishment storerooms, and amid arrangements.

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Sanitation and Safety – One representative prepared in sanitation and wellbeing – in charge of flame and mischance anticipation and cleanliness. Fire security hardware and departure arranges. Light/ventilation/temperature checked and maintained. Detainees ought to be permitted to bathe twice weekly, day by day if conceivable.

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Medical and Health Services - restorative program ought to be tied in with general wellbeing system and general wellbeing officer ought to help set up guidelines. Full-time doctor in bigger correctional facilites. Medicinal examination upon confirmation. Medicinal isolation. Restorative supplies in bolted bureau. Dental administrations ought to be given.

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"Strange Prisoners" – Juveniles ought to be won't, or isolated. Females in partitioned organizations or isolated lodging unit (lady in bigger correctional facilites). Opiate addicts – isolate, nearly direct. Heavy drinkers – medicinal care, consume less calories, AA gatherings. Rationally sick – close supervision. Sex goes astray – isolate promptly.

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Adult Probation - 1965 Presentence Report - ought to be required in all cases. Ought to take after prisoner to jail. Time of Probation – no short of what one year, close to five. Early release if proper. Interstate Compact for the Reciprocal Supervision of Probationers and Parolees. Organization – nearby or (statewide favored).

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Personnel – Chief Probation Officer Supervisors – in charge of preparing and advancement Probation Officers – in charge of presentence reports and supervision Support Personnel – assistants, stenographers, monetary, inquire about, bookkeeping Ancillary – brain research, psychiatry

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Educational Re

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