7. Moral Issues in Forestry Public Land Use

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7. Moral Issues in Forestry & Public Land Use Larry D. Sanders Spring 2002 AGEC 4990 Dept. of Ag Economics Oklahoma State University

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INTRODUCTION Purpose: to comprehend the moral issues identified with ranger service and open land utilize Learning Objectives: 1. To survey the historical backdrop of US open timberland strategy & take note of the noteworthiness of the moral level headed discussion in the ideas of protection and conservation. 2. To comprehend elective esteem viewpoints and esteem elements for backwoods. 3. To comprehend the distinctions in private and open woods administration. 4. To end up mindful of other key figures timberland asset administration.

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Forest/Public Land Policy Pinchot (Conservation) versus Protection (Muir) versus Unlimited Development (Big Business) 1891-Forest Reserve Act (open timberland holds from open land; Western US) 1897-Forest "Natural" Act (sets up national woodland framework for water stream & timber maintainability) 1905-USFS set up 1911-Weeks Act (approves buy of private land for national backwoods; Eastern US)

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Forest/Public Land Policy (cont.) 1916-National Park Organic Act (makes NPS & framework to ration view, untamed life, noteworthy items) 1960-Multiple Use & Sustainable Yield Act (MUSYA) (includes watersheds, entertainment, natural life, angling, chasing, soil worries to national backwoods) 1964-Wilderness Act (starts safeguarding of one of a kind regular territories) 1968-Wild & Scenic Rivers Act (protection of special waterways)

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Forest/Public Land Policy (cont.) 1974-Forest & Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) (makes arranging process) 1976-National Forest Management Act (includes financial, untamed life, wild & recreational utilizations to USFS arranging) 1980-Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA)(adds 13 national parks, 16 natural life asylums, 56 mil. Air conditioning. To wild framework) 1970s-1980s-added to wild framework through US 1990s-move to privatize some national backwoods territories

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Classification of Forest Values(1) 1. Bengston, D. 1993

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Value Perspectives in Forestry (Bengston in C&S) Logger: essential esteem is monetary (utilitarian ethic) Professional biologist: essential esteem is forever bolster (support biological community; utilitarian ethic) Local occupant: essential esteem is moral (natural ethic) Artist: essential esteem is stylish (inborn ethic of presence of magnificence)

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Market &Non-advertise Economic Valuation Applied to Forests Use esteem Option esteem Existence esteem Bequest esteem

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Market &Non-showcase Economic Valuation of Forests (proceeded with) Use Value Market quantifiable (i.e., timber, development, expense based amusement) Derive showcase supply (negligible expenses) & request (minor advantages) to decide productive level of utilization Non-advertise quantifiable (diversion utilize) Contingent valuation, hedonic estimating, and so on. Choice Value Non-advertise quantifiable (the privilege to utilize the woods later on) Contingent valuation, and so forth

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Market &Non-showcase Economic Valuation of Forests (proceeded with) Existence Value Non-advertise quantifiable (the inherent esteem got from information that timberland will exist in unendingness, paying little respect to use by future human eras) Contingent valuation, and so on. Estate Value Non-showcase quantifiable (the information that future eras will have utilize access to woods) Contingent valuation, and so on

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Private Forest Management Use depends exclusively on proprietor decision Profit rationale ordinarily leads basic leadership on utilize (amplify net present esteem) Owner normally limits access to others While property rights advance, popularity based government in market economy hesitant to force numerous limitations ashore utilize/get to ("takings")

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Public Forest Management Use depends fundamentally on decisions by open & open authorities (chose & selected) Multi-reason utilize has advanced as main role for open timberlands in US- - elected & state (expand net present esteem) Typical clash: Economic improvement versus ecological security Competing diversion utilizes Key ideas: Public products; free riders, time skyline

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Key Factors in Forest Resource Management Preservation versus Preservation versus Improvement Intrinsic versus Utilitarian versus Utilitarian Ethics Forest Ecology Intrinsic versus Utilitarian Ethics Private versus Open Management Intrinsic & Utilitarian Ethics Multiple Use Intrinsic versus Utilitarian versus Utilitarian

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Forest Ecology Ecosystem Climax Community Soil Formation & Nutrient Cycling Carbon Cycling Hydrological Cycle Ancient Forests Benefits Market (Wood & subsidiaries, Recreation, Mining, Grazing) Nonmarket (Habitat, Amenities [Option, Existence, Bequest])

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Multiple Use Forest Management 1. Amount & nature of different stands key to advantages of particular stand (how novel is it?) 2. Multi-Use Sustained Yield Act (MUSYA)- 1960-commands USFS to oversee both timber & non-reap benefits (amusement, environment, and so on.) 3. Beneath Cost Timber Sales—wasteful 4. NPV of all multi-utilizes > NPV without timbering 5. Old development (Ancient timberlands) & ESA basic territory Special Cases- - Nonmarket esteem might be higher in conservation

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REFERENCES Bengston, D.N., "The Nature of Value and the Value of Nature", paper introduced to People & Forests: Meeting the Challenge of Tomorrow , November 7-10, 1993.